American scientists from Purdue University developed a sensor based on graphene and nanoparticles of platinum, with which you can measure the level of glucose from samples of saliva, tears and urine, according to a statement on the website of the institution. The results of the research conducted under the direction of Timothy Fisher, published in the August issue of the journal Advanced Functional Materials.
The sensor consists of nanosheets made of graphene and is shaped like the petals of roses. These edges are attached platinum nanoparticles which act as electrodes. Graphene on a substrate of the enzyme is also immobilized by glucose oxidase. The enzyme oxidizes glucose to glucono-1 ,5-lactone, which is spontaneously hydrolyzed to gluconic acid. During the reaction also produces hydrogen peroxide, after interaction with the electrode which generates an electrical signal.
"Normally, when you create a nanotechnology-based sensor uses many industrial processes, such as lithography, chemical processing, etching, which contributes more expensive end product. "Petals" of our biosensor can be grown on any substrate without the use of expensive technology," - said one of the authors of Anurag Kumar.
Sensitivity of non-invasive biosensor allows to determine glucose concentration of 0.3 micromolar. It can be used, according to the authors, in determining the level of glucose on samples of saliva, tears and urine of the patient.
If we replace the glucose oxidase enzyme to another, the sensor can be used to measure the levels of other substances in the body. According to the researchers, based on their development, you can create a breathalyzer, and a device for monitoring the condition of a patient with Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's. "Our sensor is very fast, portable and versatile" - said one of the authors work.
Aug 24, 2012
Important Facts About Vitamins & Supplements
If you eat healthy food, pay due attention to the physical exercise, have a sufficient sleep and generally keep an eye on your health, you probably thought about how to maintain the balance of vitamins and minerals your body through a variety of supplements. Worthy initiative, but here are a few facts that you should know before you decide to take this step.
1. No supplement is 100% safe
There is no guarantee that the harmless vitamin did not cause harm to your body. Not to mention the counterfeit, may idiosyncrasy, or other negative consequences. According to statistics in the United States each year 10,500 cases of hospitalization due to intake of various supplements and vitamins.
2. Easy to overdose on supplements
Surprisingly easy - you have no idea how much. If you are not a professional bodybuilder or Hollywood actor and your diet is not thought out in the details and intricacies, you will continually be in danger of. Here's an example - you care about the health of your bones, whole grain breakfast cereals (1000 mg. Calcium), skim milk (400 mg. Calcium) and then take a supplement containing calcium (500 mg.) And you are on the verge of a valid daily allowance of 2000 mg. And the day it is only begun.
3. You can not rely on the advice on the label
Believe what is written in the manual and on the labels of supplements in general it is not recommended - because supplements are not drugs, this issue is not regulated by any practical and can write anything there.
4. They do not cure the disease
Numerous scientific studies, which you will find in the internet surfing that supplements are effective in the treatment of certain diseases can not be based on a no justification. Dozens of such research - and every day they refute each other - do not rush to believe the scientists, just because they are scientists. To date, not a single proof that synthetic supplements can effectively be used as drugs.
5. The tablets can irritate the esophagus
Various eating disorders are also common consequence of supplementation - and in some cases they may be long-term consequences. There are studies that link the admission of certain types of supplements with an increased risk of ulcers.
Aug 21, 2012
Oral Contraceptives Reduce The Menstruation
A team of researchers from the School of Medicine at Penn State College United States under the new work found that the use of oral contraceptives on a regular basis, and not as traditionally it is required for each cycle, helps to reduce the pain from moderate to severe menstrual cramps also known as dysmenorrhea.
Dysmenorrhea occurs during menstruation, and is a consequence of uterine contractions, accompanied by an increased sensitivity to pain, and the additional pressure in the pelvis. It is also often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches and fatigue.
"From 50 to 90% of women suffer from this condition, and it can really limit their ability to work, as well as their performance in academic and athletic activities," said Dr. Richard Legro, professor of obstetrics and gynaecology. "Previous studies have shown that dysmenorrhea in the U.S. alone, leads to the fact that women miss 600 million work hours a year, which costs the economy $ 2 billion". Participants in the new study were suffering from unexplained menstrual pain. Their pain was not related to previous operations, ovarian cysts, endometriosis or other pelvic or intestinal diseases.
"Oral contraceptives are often prescribed for the treatment of dysmenorrhea, as the decline in menstruation is a relatively simple way to relieve these cramps," - said Legros. "However, we wanted to determine whether there is a measurable difference between the two different methods of treatment - namely, cyclic and continuous oral contraceptives." Cyclic treatment simulates the natural cycle of women, preventing the flow of blood for 21 days, followed by a break of 7 days during which menstruation occurs. Continuous method consists of 28 days of active contraception, without interruption for menstruation. After six months of research evaluation in both groups, there was a decrease menstrual pain. However, women who take birth control continuously reported a significant relief, which began to manifest itself about the second cycle of therapy.
Aug 20, 2012
Generic Name: Hydroquinone Topical
Active and inactive Esoterica Cream ingredients:
Active Ingredients: Hydroquinone USP 2.0%; Octyl Dimethyl PABA USP 3.3%; Benzophenone-3 USP 2.5% Inactive Ingredients Purified Water USP; Glyceryl Monostearate; Isopropyl Palmitate NF; Ozokerite Wax
Esoterica Cream is a skin-lightening topical substance.
Esoterica Cream Esoteric inhibits the enzyme reaction of the skin cells. Hydroquinone decreases the formation of melanin (the pigment in skin that gives it a brown color) in the skin. Hydroquinone topical is used to lighten areas of darkened skin such as freckles, age spots, chloasma, and melisma or any skin pigmentation. Esoterica cream was invented to fade age spots, other signs of aging and freckles step-by-step.
Esoterica Cream is tested by dermatologists. It can be used even under make up and is non-greasy. Esoterica Cream may not work on very dark skin and claims to see maximum results in at least 6 weeks of continuous use.
How it works:
The Estorica cream contains active ingredients that lighten the skin such as Octyl Dimethyl PABA, Hydroquinone (2.0) and Benzophenone-3. The hyperpigmentation and discoloration in the skin as a result to the sun’s harmful UV rays is lightened by the use of the Estorica Cream. Just by simply applying a thin layer of cream to the affected area, the skin may be lightened and a fairer skin color will be restored. The Estorica cream also includes an SPF of 10 that is an added protection to the skin from the sun. This cream works with the active ingredient Hydroquinone that may create adverse effects on the skin over prolonged use.
How to use Esoterica (hydroquinone topical)
Use this cream exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. Hydroquinone topical is for external use only. Wash your hands before and after applying topical substance, unless you are treating a skin area on your hand.
Apply the medication to clean, dry skin. Apply just enough medication to cover the affected area. Avoid applying to the unaffected surrounding skin. Rub in the topical cream completely in the skin.
Avoid getting this cream on your lips or inside your nose or mouth. Hydroquinone may cause numbness of these areas. If Esoterica Cream does get on any of these areas, rinse with water.
Side Effects: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Stop using hydroquinone topical and call your doctor if you have severe burning, stinging, or other irritation of your skin after apply the medication.
The risk of developing cardiovascular disease may be largely due to human blood groups, - believe scientists from the United States.
People in this study, with a rare blood group - AB, which is currently present in approximately 7% of the U.S. population, showed the highest risk of developing heart disease, which is 23% higher than the average figures. At the same time, people with blood group B had 11% greater risk, while group A had only a 5% greater risk. Thus about 43% of Americans have blood group O - the most secure one.
"Given the fact that people can not change your blood type, data obtained may help physicians to better understand which patients are more at risk for heart disease" - said Dr. Qi Lu, senior study author and assistant professor of nutrition at the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston. "It's important to know your blood type just as you should know your cholesterol and blood pressure," - he said.
"If you know what in your case the risk of heart disease is high, you can deliberately reduce it by going to a healthier lifestyle, which will include proper nutrition, exercise and smoking cessation," - he adds. The findings of his group are based on an analysis of two well-known in the U.S. studies, where a total of 62,073 women and 27,428 men aged 30 to 75 were followed for 20 years or more.
The researchers made an amendment to such factors as diet, age, body mass index, gender, race, smoking, presence or absence of menopause and history of the disease. The researchers noted that the ratio of blood groups in the test group was kept exactly the same as it is present and the entire global population today. However, the researchers analyzed the data only statistically, without trying to understand the nature of the biochemical interactions of cardiovascular disease and blood character.
Aug 14, 2012
Painkillers & Antidepressants
Common infections and drugs can lead to confusion and delirious syndrome in the elderly. But this syndrome is associated with an eightfold increased risk of dementia, writes The Telegraph.
This syndrome, which appears as a result of taking anti-depressants, painkillers and sedatives is met at least in 15% of older people in hospital. However, a recent study Daniel Davis of Cambridge, showed that the problem continues to be relevant, and after discharge. In his opinion, the syndrome should be put in the list of factors contributing to the development of dementia.
Employees of universities of Cambridge and East Finland evaluated the memory and the ability to think for 553 people. The observation lasted 10 years. Among the people who once faced with the syndrome, 77% had dementia. In the control group developed dementia, only 33% of cases.
For example, if a person has developed dementia after a syndrome made itself felt, the scheme of the disease differed from ordinary dementia and was associated with the standard features of the disease. And if you already had dementia, the syndrome is aggravated during the illness and increased mortality.
Aug 10, 2012
The Cause of Frequent Childhood Illnesses
U.S. scientists have understood the cause of frequent childhood illnesses. Immunology Group at the University of Michigan managed to advance in the understanding of the causes of relatively high exposure of young children to various infections. The work of scientists published online in the journal Nature Immunology.
Previous studies in this sphere have shown that this is due to the immaturity of the immune system of infants. Functional maturation of key immune cells of the organism - a virus attack normal killer (NK cells) - only happens with age. However, until now it was not clear that it interferes with the process of maturation of NK cells in early life.
It was found that the production and maturation of NK cells inhibited generated in the bone marrow protein called transforming growth factor beta (TGF-²). Studies conducted on the modified line of mice that lack the gene encoding this protein revealed that in their bodies from birth is a much larger number of NK cells, they quickly mature and at an early age form a pool that is able to effectively counter the virus. As a result, these pups almost never suffer from infectious diseases.
"We found to our surprise, that blocking TGF-² allows NK cells to reach full maturity as early as age ten-day" - said Yasmina Laouar, being at the head of the group. In this case, as revealed in the course of studies in adult mice with blocked TGF-² matures ten times more NK cells than mice with the included TGF-².
The authors emphasize that no matter how tempting is the offer as a strategy to strengthen the immune system of infants by inactivating TGF-², it is not about this intervention, as this protein is required for normal development and life cycle of cells. Further researches are needed in this direction.
Aug 8, 2012
Stress Provokes Impotence
Among the many causes of impotence or erectile dysfunction psychogenic factors play a special role. So common severe depression or stress is the major cause of psychogenic impotence. Patients suffering from depression, lose the ability to enjoy, and it is - a powerful barrier to erectile function. These people lose their self-esteem and hope for the future, convinced that they deserved this humiliation and in any case can not change the attitude towards life.
Depression is a frustrating experience a painful condition, sometimes even life-threatening because it can lead to suicide. Many people consider depression an excellent example of a purely emotional distress, and believe that it should be treated with kindness and psychotherapy, not with drugs. But this is false.
Serious mental disorders are actually brain diseases. Traditional psychotherapy in similar situations bad acts. Best results are achieved when using drugs. Doctors do not make conclusions that every impotent man who is experiencing anxiety or fear, these feelings should be blamed for their problems. And the anxiety and fear can cause impotence itself. In addition, increased anxiety - normal for some people. To convince them of anything was quite easy - just because of their penchant for intense experiences.
Every man under stress can temporarily become impotent, but that is a condition manifested by regularly or become permanent, we need serious trouble - job loss, a major family conflict, etc.
People who think that sex is a daily duty, but not the joy of life are also at risk of getting into trouble. Very religious people Often suffer from impotence, as well as victims of violence and men with distorted ideas about their sexual abilities. Some men initially did not show much interest in sex, but abstinence from intercourse - not a disease, unless the man himself mentally are not affected, writes sex-health.
And finally, there are men who need non-traditional sexual relationships, some homosexuals (active), coming into contact with a woman who are impotent. In such cases, the physician must ensure absolute impotence of the patient or not, and then to resort to complex and expensive research. An erection requires good coordination from nervous and vascular systems of a man, that the person who need to achieve the desired result in at least 1% of his attempts is likely to suffer from psychogenic impotence. The man, who has just nocturnal erections from a physical point of view is healthy, so the doctor needs to know whether they occur.
Aug 3, 2012
Stress at Work Activates The Aging Process
In a recently organized study of a group of Finnish researchers it was found out that hard work with a lot of stress to a considerable extent accelerates the aging process. Their study was conducted at the genetic level.
Researchers compared the length of the pieces of DNA, called telomeres - terminal regions of chromosomes, carrying in the body only a protective function. With age, telomere length decreases, and when this parameter reaches a critical low values, comes apoptosis - programmed cell death. Otherwise, there is an infringement of DNA - the cell starts to work properly, which can lead to a variety of negative processes. According to modern views on the nature of telomere reduction is an indicator of aging.
Researchers in Finland found that people engaged in complex work involving a large number of stressful situations, other things being equal the length of telomeres is less than average performance. DNA was analyzed for a total of 2911 people aged 30 to 64 years. According to researchers in most cases their conclusions about the different length of telomeres in people the same age were confirmed and their external features - more wrinkles, crow's feet, gray hair. However, what is more important - according to the epigenetic theory of aging, the erosion of telomeres is dangerous, and insofar as it activates in the body of destructive processes inherent in our DNA, resulting in an increased risk of developing diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases character, as well as Parkinson's disease.
People working at the job with a lot of stress, no matter what the nature of this work has, on average, have 20% shorter telomeres after five years of such work. If this trend persists for more than five years, it would mean that 25 years experience of the aging process in humans engaged in the work of his nervous rate will be twice the normal rates. According to the researchers, their conclusions should be used to design control systems of stress in the workplace, and to create exceptional conditions for workers and employees who have to deal with nervous types of work.
Jul 31, 2012
Women More Often Suffer From Stroke Than Men
Women worsely endure stroke than men - their quality of life after such a reduced state is much more significant and more difficult to recover them - such a conclusion was made recently by American scientists.
In their study, a total of 496 people participated, of whom 379 suffered a stroke, while 117 - transit ischemic attack, often referred to as well as micro-stroke.
It is known that stroke is a condition that can lead to irreversible damage to human cognitive functions, as well as a violation of his coordination. In the end, it largely affects the quality of life. As a result, the study found that male stroke, as well as microstroke is younger than the female. Thus, on average, male representatives stroke occurs in 72 years, microstroke in 76 years. In women, these rates are equal to 75 and 78 years respectively.
However, in five of the six key indicators of adverse effects occurring as a result of stroke, women showed a much greater reduction in quality of life. These indicators are emotion, sleep, energy, pain and mobility. The only thing the men in this case go ahead of women - this is a social sphere.
With regard to specific areas of life, a greater number of men reported problems with sex (34% male vs. 19% women). Women reported more problems with the home (56% vs. 36% for men) and social (33% vs. 22%). When microstroke women had more problems with the home (48% vs. 20% for men), social problems (33% vs. 8%), family problems (13% vs 0%), recreation areas (42% vs. 23%).
As a result, the researchers concluded that after the stroke of any severity in women's quality of life is reduced to a greater extent than men, as evidenced by subjective feelings and specific medical follow-up.
Jul 27, 2012
Orange juice is one of the best means of maintaining outer beauty, to the conclusion recently arrived group of scientists from the United States. According to them, a unique combination of vitamin C, potassium and folic acid helps to preserve the natural beauty of skin, hair and nails.
A number of trace elements contained in orange juice, stimulates the body's process of renewal and in particular the epidermal cells, which makes our skin more elasticity and improves the colour.
There are also a number of studies that orange juice and lutein, which it contains, are capable of improving the attractiveness of men and women in the eyes of the opposite sex at a chemical level. While this hypothesis has not received sufficient support in the research, but according to some scientists the use of the recommended dose is 200 ml. of orange juice a day leads to the production of products of external secretion - a special category of pheromones, which increase the physical attractiveness of a person on a psychological level.
In particular, in a pilot study of a group of scientists proposed several men and women to assess the attractiveness of several members of the opposite sex from the photos, but after a while, and in person. As a result, it was found that if a person consumed 200 ml. of orange juice a day for several months, it allowed him to improve his view in person. The effect was present in almost every case.
As the researchers note, we are primarily talking about the so-called pheromones-relievers - a special category of these substances, which stimulate rapid reaction to the partner. In particular, such reactions stimulate epagonies that arouse sexual desire in a partner, and in a fairly short time.
"Many scientists believe that the person for the most part chooses a mate by smell. Like it or not is really not known, but the results of similar studies for the medical community are of considerable interest, since the possibility to stimulateepagonies(those pheromones that attract potential sexual partners), yet little understood by science. This topic requires further investigation "- say U.S. researchers.
Jul 24, 2012
Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease
Four-components medication for the prevention of cardiovascular disease was successfully tested on older Britons. According to EurekAlert!, trials of combined drug Polypill the specialists from University of London Queen Mary conducted on the basis of St. Bartholomew Hospital. The article of researchers was published in the journal PLoS ONE.
Polypill is a combination drug consisting of amlodipine (dilates blood vessels, lowers blood pressure), losaratan (an anti-hypertensive), hydrochlorothiazide (a diuretic drug with hypotensive action) and simvastatin (reduces production of cholesterol by the liver).
The trials of the drug involved residents of the UK aged over 50 who have not been identified diseases of the cardiovascular system. Within three months, half the participants took a daily Polypill, and the other part of volunteers received a placebo.
According to the study, systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients receiving combination drug compared with the control group decreased by 12 and 11 percent respectively. The level of cholesterol in the blood of the volunteers who took Polypill, fell by almost 40 percent.
The organizers of tests indicated that the obtained results are consistent with preliminary theoretical calculations of the efficiency of Polypill. One of the creators of the combined drugs Sir Nicholas Wald added that the use of the drug half of all Britons aged over 50 years will prevent about 94 thousand heart attacks and strokes each year.
In 2009 a similar test of the combined drug had an Indian pharmaceutical company Cadila Healthcare. However, the composition is different from the Polycap British counterpart - its components are hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, ramipril, simvastatin and aspirin.
Jul 20, 2012
Migraine Increases Risk Of Neurological Diso
Migraine is one of the neurological disorders, which to some extent impair the quality of life. This means that if this kind of disease, many kinds of different activities become virtually inaccessible to the patient and one has to adjust his life to a disorder.
However, according to a recent survey of American Scientists launched a migraine significantly increases the risk of other neurological disorders, including depression, sleep disorders, and causeless anxiety. Also, these people quickly get tired and have a lower pain threshold.
According to official estimates of the researchers in the U.S. today, 10% of children born with an innate propensity to migraines. As it is known, the disorder has possibility to progress, and therefore the relatively mild form of the disease may eventually develop into more severe and cause other disorders. According to scientists, in the case when a migraine for 30 years does not receive proper treatment, the risk of developing neurological disorders grows by 40%, followed by a further increase in the proportion to 30% every ten years in human life.
Imperfect diagnosis of migraine is that very few people are aware of its symptoms. According to the traditional clinical picture, the most common migraine symptoms include blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, increased sensitivity to sensory stimulation and tingling or numbness in the extremities or face. Also, the main symptom of migraines are extremely painful headaches that can be situational or occur with some regularity, not related to any external stimuli.
However, not all of these symptoms will be present in each case. Very often, except for headache disorders have no symptoms at all, resulting in similar pain successfully blamed on busy at work and other difficulties in life, resulting in migraines and remains undetected.
Jul 17, 2012
Sugar Substitutes To Help Weight Loss
According to the research of scientists from Stanford University in the U.S. reasonable use of sugar substitutes helps to significantly reduce the amount of calories consumed. According to their calculations, the substitution of 30-50% of sugar in the diet of various supplements, can reduce the proportion of the average calorie intake by 15%, which in turn reduces the risk of heart disease and diabetes. This measure allows you to control your weight and avoid obesity as well.
The most effective and safe sweeteners, researchers recommend low-calorie substances such as acesulfame potassium, aspartame, saccharin, sucralose and stevia. However, the researchers note that the replacement of sugar in the human diet should be sensible - do not give away more than 50% because it will lead to the development of a number of adverse health effects.
According to the recommendations of the American community study of heart disease on the day on the consumption of sugar should account for no more than 100 calories for women and 150 men. This figure is now in the country exceeded 87% of the population, while 39% of it regularly exceeds the normal levels in three or four times, which is a critical value in terms of risk of diabetes type. At the same time, the rate of consumption of sugar may vary to a degree individually depending on age and body weight.
According to scientists, following the recommendations of their people will be able to reduce the volume of the body's need for carbohydrates, which in the context of an overall diet will also help to balance the number of diet and curb your appetite, which would be beneficial to the organism as a whole.
"Also, people should not interpret our advice in his own way: the amount pf daily calories consumed should remain unchanged. If he had previously consumed 180 calories of sugar a day, and now switched to 90 calories, but the "reward yourself" several pieces of cake, prepared with the use of alternative sweeteners to total food value of 300 calories, no effect in terms of weight control is not reach. It should also be very clear" - the researchers note.
Jul 6, 2012
"Electric Needle" To Treat Prostate Cancer
The hot needle easily replaces the scalpel, killing the active cancer cells without affecting healthy cells. The diameter of the needle is less than two millimetres. Such a modest size makes it possible to preserve sexual function and avoid the development of incontinence.
At this point in the Cancer Center and Research Institute, Lee Moffitt have this technology on 60 volunteers with prostate cancer who are at an early stage of development. A similar approach has previously tested in patients with breast cancer and kidney failure. As a rule, the choice of method of treatment depends on tumour location and whether it had time to spread. For example, for localized tumours provides a radical prostatectomy (removal of the prostate gland). However, surgery may damage the nerves.
It is also possible to kill the cancer with ultrasound. However, radio-frequency ablation (using an electric current to generate heat at the tip of the electrode, which resembles a needle), according to doctors, more efficient. During the procedure, a needle is inserted into the perineum. Next, doctors monitor its position by MRI or CT. The needle emits a charge of about 20 watts.
Professor Raj Persad from Bristol Urology Institute says: "Radio-frequency ablation is stronger in terms of energy potential in comparison with ultrasound. Ultrasound can not penetrate to great depths. For the same reason it will not work if there are stones in the prostate. But ablation is not faced with similar problems".
Jul 3, 2012
Atkins Diet & Its Analogues
Unbalanced diets should be avoided, in the future is not faced with intractable problems, writes Simon Marchetti in an article published on the website of the newspaper Corriere della Sera.
"Following the Atkins diet, which means the preference of proteins at the expense of carbohydrates, really contributes to the rapid weight loss, but over the years by 5% could increase the risk of heart attacks and strokes," - it is said in the publication.
"The percentage increases to 60% when it comes to young women, who for a long time expose themselves to such an unbalanced diet. Once again, against the Atkins diet were made by scientists at the German Institute of Human Nutrition and the Max Delbruck Centre for Molecular Medicine. In the scientific the British Medical Journal published the results of these studies, which was attended by 43 396 Swedish women aged 30 to 49 years. They responded to a questionnaire relating to lifestyle and consumption of 800 different products in the average period of 15.7 years. It was found that the 1270 respondents noted problems with the cardiovascular system. The representatives of Atkins company said that the increase in the risk of cardiac abnormalities is not associated with diet, but with "low carbohydrate intake, accompanied by increased consumption of protein," as the author writes.
"The Italian professor dietitian Lucio Luchin warned against the spread of hyperproteinic diets." Me personally - said the professor, - rarely assign such a diet, one should follow these diets can be a maximum of 3-4 weeks, and only under strict medical supervision, because the longer the observance of such diet can not only lead to problems of the cardiovascular system, as described in the study, but also to the pathology of the kidneys and liver because these organs have to travel further work, processing of proteins, "- it is said in the article.
Jun 29, 2012
10 Best Products For Your Hair
Most often, shampoos and conditioners contain certain chemicals that stimulate pigmentation of hair, or other compounds that give them strength and outer beauty.
However, the effect is short and not so favourite shampoo, he will be gone in a couple of days. Meanwhile, everyone has a way to do their hair, which is called "perfect by nature" - beautiful and strong, without any chemicals. To do this, just need to sometimes use the following products.
1. Lean red meat
It contains many useful trace elements, and especially iron. Especially recommended for men after 40 years as the best means of preventing hair loss, known to date nutrition.
They contain biotin and vitamin B, which nourish the scalp and enhance, respectively, feeding themselves of hair. Especially it is recommended when the hair is brittle.
3. Bananas, beer, oats, raisins
These products are combined into one item because they contain large amounts of silicon. Hair it is vitally important because it is on its presence or absence of the organism depends on the thickness and strength of our hair.
4. Dark vegetables
Spinach and broccoli are rich in vitamins A and C, which helps release sebum. Do not be scared. It is necessary for healthy hair, as a natural air conditioner acts as our hair.
And other seafood as well protect us from baldness. They are also very effective against dandruff.
6. Sweet potato
Rich in beta-carotene - a compound is very useful for our skin and hair, protecting us from the dryness of the hair, as well as from dry skin.
Rich in specific forms of the protein that a person usually has in short supply. These proteins are necessary for a regular supply of hair.
Full range of vitamins that are good for our health, we can get out of citrus. They also play an important role in normal development of our hair.
Maintain the hair follicles are always in good condition. Also play an important role in the prevention of hair loss.
10. Olive oil
Provides shine and strength to hair.
Jun 26, 2012
Survival Mechanism of Helicobacter Pylori
Group of biologists from the University of Oregon was the first to find out how the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, causes ulcers of the stomach, avoiding the destructive influence of gastric acidity. The results of their study are published in the June issue of the journal Structure. By studying the molecular structure of bacteria, scientists have discovered that a key role in survival of Helicobacter pylori in an aggressive environment is a molecule of urea, a protein associated with TlpB. Together they function as an acid receptor.
And that was particularly struck by the researchers, in the case of the so-called Helicobacter pylori PAS-domain TlpB - responsible for the signal reception area of the protein, which normally resides within the cell - passed out in a tiny platform and is attached there to a molecule of urea. This custom design according to the authors, allows to receive the signal of the dangerous bacteria to the level of acidity of the environment, followed by Helicobacter pylori is moved to a safer area for a stomach. The researchers note that the location of extracellular PAS-domain of bacterial chemoreceptors found for the first time.
If a molecule of urea, for some reason does not bind to the receptor, the bacterium, according to one of the authors, Professor of Biology Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon Karen Guillemin, completely disoriented and does not respond to a dangerous level of acidity.
The study's authors, quoted by Medical News Today, believe - despite the fact that they are still only at the beginning, revealed the mechanism is extremely important to deal with Helicobacter pylori, whose resistance to antibiotics currently stands at 30 percent.
Helicobacter pylori - is a gram-negative bacterium, first observed in 1982. It is proven that it causes peptic ulcer disease in humans, and even stomach cancer. At the same Helicobacter pylori is present in the stomachs of approximately half of the world's population and 80 percent of its carriers, it does not cause any adverse symptoms.
Jun 12, 2012
The so-called nicotinamide riboside - a special compound contained in milk is one of the best way to improve metabolism and fight obesity, - believe U.S. scientists.
According to a study, their beneficial effects this ingredient carries through the impact on the well-known modern medicine the gene SIRT1. According to the ideas of experts, this gene is responsible for the metabolism in the human body, and it is a violation of his expression, as a rule, leads to the fact that a person begins to gain weight.
"Our body actually can cope with almost any amount of fat we eat. Too many people in the 20-30 years old can eat anything, is extremely incorrect foods, not to an active lifestyle, but it did not gain weight. At the same time many of us enough to give yourself a little indulgence - to eat a little doughnut or a couple of hamburgers, and the cock is already beginning to slowly creep up. All this is happening because of the presence or absence of optimal metabolism", - as noted in the report on the study.
Nicotinamide riboside affects the expression of a gene SIRT1, so that the metabolism is working exactly the way it works at a young age and the way it should work in principle. Similarly, the property has a red resveratrol - a compound contained in wine, it is not difficult to guess - most notably in its red taps. However resveratrol is not retained in the cell, resulting in its effect is temporary, and if people drink so much red wine, to ensure a good metabolism in long-term scale, approximately at the same time he will provide himself and liver problems.
Nicotinamide riboside has a similar feature, but that effect was sufficient person should consume daily 0.5 to 1 liter of natural milk. The figure is also impressive, so researchers are currently working on the creation of specialized supplements that contain a daily dose of a compound necessary for the harmonization of metabolism.
Jun 8, 2012
New Method For Blood Analyses
U.S. scientists have developed a fairly simple and affordable way of blood analyses, which helps to identify patients with increased risk of death within one month after heart surgery. The analysis aims to identify the blood of patients special connection of troponin T (marker protein of cardiac injury). Its presence in certain proportions allows physicians to make a conclusion about the need to further monitor the patient.
The present level of toponina not measured after the operation, which according to U.S. researchers from the University of MakSter is a serious omission, which is a few million people's lives a year. According to statistics in the world today is recorded about 200 million adults each year undergoing heart surgery. Despite recent scientific advances that have greatly improved the method of conducting such operations, many patients suffer from serious complications, and a million of them die within 30 days after the procedure.
The study was conducted involving 15 133 patients in North and South America, Europe and Asia. The study demonstrated that patients whose troponin levels during the first six or seven days after surgery have elevated levels of troponin have a significantly lower risk of dying within a month after the procedure. The fact is that surgeryactivates inflammation, as well as the processes of stress and blood clotting, which together predispose to injury of the heart.
According to the researchers' calculations troponin levels above the 0.04 ratio is high - it says that the human cardiovascular system intelligently react to the stress and restored. Troponin levels below this value is negative. In this case the researchers said it is important to understand that patients with low levels of troponin are not experiencing chest pain or other symptoms of heart problems - as a result the same heart attack can sneak up unnoticed.
Jun 5, 2012
The condition characterized as peripheral neuropathy is rather common side effect arising as a result of certain chemotherapy medications. Tingling - as a rule is felt in the fingers and toes, and can be characterized by a certain constancy and tenderness - that standardly is uncomfortable for most patients. At the same time in 30% of patients this state is characterized by a rather severe pain.
Previous studies have shown that today appropriate methods to treat this kind of pain are absent. However, in the current study, which was presented at a meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the team of scientists proposed a report of 231 patients with peripheral neuropathy, who received Oxaliplatin or Paclitaxel. Patients were randomly divided into two groups, one of which within 5 weeks received Duloxetine, and the other a placebo drug. Every week throughout the study patients were asked to assess the degree of pain of side effects. The researchers found that 59% of patients treated with Duloxetine, had pain decreased significantly, whereas in the placebo group the insignificance of the pain was noticed only in 39% of patients. "These drugs do not work in every case. However, the good news is that they work in most cases. We have to figure out what does it depend, and if we can predict the degree of their effectiveness, it will give us a good tool to help our patients "- says lead study author Ellen M. Lavoie Smith, PhD and assistant professor at the University of Michigan.
In framework of earlier studies, Duloxetine demonstrated the ability to ease pain of diabetic neuropathy. This type of antidepressant medication has an effect on neurotransmitters, not allowing them to transmit signals to the presence of pain in the brain. An important advantage of taking this drug is that it practically does not cause any side effects except for a small loss of strength.
May 29, 2012
Lenses For Diabetics
Scientists have developed lenses for diabetics, which change colour depending on the content of sugar in the blood. Scientists from the University of Akron (Ohio, USA) have developed a fundamentally new tool for the analysis of blood glucose - contact lenses that change colour depending on the concentration of monosaccharide in the tear fluid. Tears, in turn, is almost always present on the surface of the eye.
If sugar is not digested properly, and the concentration of glucose in the body increases, the contact-lens meter detects the problem and will change colour. In fact, the lens works as a litmus test, which is used in school chemistry lessons.
Usually, a sugar solution in water is beyond visual identification - any concentration of the syrup is transparent. Dr. Jun Hu from Ohio has been developed a substance that reacts with glucose, if present in the moisture. In the reaction, the substance changes colour - it becomes red. Accordingly, the wearer, or who has put briefly diabetic contact lens red eye - the higher the concentration of sugar, the more intense.
Currently, a team of researchers is working to create an application for smart phones, which is the colour of the lens, read by the camera of cellphones, will determine the approximate level of glucose.
Meanwhile the scientists created a prototype contact lens on the industrial and experimental development which will take at least 3 years.
May 25, 2012
Professor Mitsuo Osimura, director of the Center for Design of chromosomes, has to deal with hereditary diseases using artificial human chromosomes (IHCH) and induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSC).
Even last year, Professor has proven the ability to use IHCH in the treatment of Duchenne myodystrophy. This disease is associated with mutations in the gene responsible for synthesis of the protein dystrophin. As a result, muscular system can not function normally.
Experiments with mice showed that therapy with IPSK can normalize the muscles of animals. At the forefront is the creation of the chromosome carrying the normal gene fragment. This chromosome is placed in a carrier - a stem cell. The result is a ready-made cage, suitable for cultivation and transplantation. When these cells are hoisted it takes place the tissue repair, that are afflicted by ailment.
According to Alexey Tomilin, head of the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Stem Cell Institute of Cytology RAS, artificial chromosomes are very convenient. They have almost unlimited capacity, stability, absence of modifications of the host genome and the possibility of controlled removal of the chromosomes of cells.
May 22, 2012
Vitamin D May Reduce Blood Pressure
Vitamin D3 can act as an ACE inhibitor in patients with obesity and hypertension, therefore, prolonged treatment with vitamin D3, may decrease the risk of chronic kidney disease in patients with obesity, lowering the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Dr. Anand Vaidya (Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts) presented a study on the Scientific Sessions «Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology» 2012.
The study was designed to evaluate the effect of treatment with vitamin D3 on the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in obese patients, selected because of the high risk of chronic kidney disease. Is currently under study, including patients with normal weight. The study included 14 subjects with morbid obesity (BMI 36 kg / m ²) with hypertension, pre-diabetes, levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 [OH] D) below 25 ng / ml, and normal renal function. Scientists have used a protocol that carefully controlled for possible effects on the RAS, were taken into account all potential modulators of RAS.
The duration of treatment with vitamin D3 was limited to one month in order to minimize self-discontinuation of the drug and confounding factors such as weight loss and dietary changes. Within a month, patients received 15,000 IU of vitamin D3 per day. Their mean plasma levels of 25 (OH) D increased from 18 mg / dL to 52 mg / dl. Scientists have found that treatment with high doses of vitamin D3 increased the initial flow rate of the plasma in the kidney at 5% and lowered the mean arterial pressure in the supine position.
As expected, prolonged infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) decreased renal blood flow. Vitamin D3 increased renal vascular reactivity in the long infusion AngII, which was represented by a large decrease in the volume velocity of the plasma flow in the kidney after treatment with vitamin D3. Dr. Vaidya explained that the effect was small, but observed only after 1 month of therapy with vitamin D.
Response to AngII inversely related to the level of activation of the RAS, and the results suggest a decrease in activity of the RAS in patients treated with vitamin D. The authors conclude that vitamin D3 and ACE inhibitors have the same mechanism of action.
May 18, 2012
New Drug For Weight Loss
Recently, the panel of experts recommended the FDA to approve a drug for weight loss lorkaserin, despite some concerns about side effects from the cardiovascular system. If management will approve the final sale of lorkaserin, the drug will be the first new drug for weight loss, which became available to Americans for decades. FDA is not obliged to follow the commission, but usually follows.
The commission of experts voted 18 to 4 for the approval of the drug, with one abstention, saying that "the benefits exceed the risks lorkaserin for long-term use" to fight obesity, notes the Associated Press.
But this drug is not always so graciously accepted. In 2010, scientists have expressed doubts about its safety, given that the animals that are tested lorkaserin, developed tumours. However, since the manufacturer of the drug has collected additional data in the hope that the FDA still give tribute to the useful properties of lorkaserin. According to a review of the FDA, obtained in the studies include data suggest the risk of cancer in humans "negligible." However, there remain doubts about the side effects from the heart and blood vessels, such as: arterial hypertension in patients with diabetes mellitus and possible damage of heart valves.
According to the Associated Press, lorkaserin - is the third drug to fight obesity, which FDA is considering again after an initial rejection in 2010 and early 2011 for fear of serious side effects.
In February, FDA approval of the expert committee has received another drug for weight loss - Knex. The final decision on it will take in July 2012.
May 15, 2012
Low-fat Dairy Products Reduce Stroke Risk
A large prospective study in Sweden found that men and women who consumed low-fat dairy products had a lower risk of stroke compared with volunteers who consumed dairy products high in fat. Results of the study, performed by Dr. Susanna C. Larsson (Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden) and colleagues, published in the online edition of «Stroke» on April, 19. "Dairy foods are high in fat may counteract the potentially favourable effects of dairy products on the risk of stroke, increasing the concentration of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol," - said Dr. Larson.
The advantages of low-fat dairy products, the availability of vitamins and minerals such as calcium, potassium, magnesium, and vitamin D. "It is possible that vitamin D, contained in the low-fat dairy foods, may partly explain the observed reduction in risk of stroke in this study because of its potential effect on blood pressure" - said Dr. Larsson. "We took into account other known risk factors for stroke, the results remained the same. Nevertheless, we can not completely exclude the possibility that unknown risk factors for stroke partly mediate the observed association, "- said Dr. Larsson.
"There is a potential biological mechanisms through which low-fat dairy foods may lower the risk of stroke, such as lowering blood pressure," - said Dr. Larsson. "However, few studies have investigated the potential association between the consumption of low-fat dairy products and risk of stroke. Therefore, we examined this association in a large cohort of men and women. "
Dr. Larsson and her team observed 74 961 Swedish adults aged 45 - 83 years old from 1998 to December 2008. Adults who were participants in the study «Swedish Mammography Cohort» and the Cohort of Swedish Men», filled in a questionnaire with questions about education, weight, height, smoking, physical activity, aspirin use, history of hypertension and diabetes, family history of myocardial infarction up till 60 years, alcohol consumption and diet.
Participants also reported the level of physical activity for the year preceding study enrolment. Consumption of dairy products was evaluated using a questionnaire. During the mean follow-up 10.2 years, there were 4089 strokes (1680 women and 2409 men), including cerebral infarcts 3159, 583 hemorrhagic stroke, and 347 non-specific stroke.
The study showed that consumption of low-fat dairy products reduced the risk of stroke in general and cerebral infarction.
May 11, 2012
Indian Pharmacological Market
One of the largest in India pharm-company Cipla Ltd. stated that goes to the unprecedented decline of prices for anti-cancer drugs, says, "The Pharmaceutical Journal." It is known that certain drugs should be cheaper by about 75%.
International experts heartedly accepted the news, advising U.S. companies to review their policies on business in India. It should be said that shortly before making a decision about the price drop has forced India's Patent Office, the German company Bayer to transfer the license to produce the drug for the treatment of cancer of the liver and kidneys Nexavar (sorafenib) by one of the local companies producing generic drugs.
By the way, Cipla is already selling sorafenib from 2010. Then, Bayer was unable to stop the production of generics. Now, Cipla announced price reductions on month course of treatment with a 523 dollars to 125 U.S. dollars. For comparison, the monthly treatment of patented Nexavar costs 5230 dollars.
And reported a decrease in the price of the drug for the treatment of lung cancer Iressa (the price will fall by 60%) and for the treatment of brain cancer temozolomide (75%). Both of these drugs - the brainchild of the company AstraZeneca. Cipla is going to sell cheap generic drugs not only within India but also in other developing countries.
May 8, 2012
Female Infertility Treatment
The diagnosis of 'infertility' leaves the chances of spontaneous pregnancy. Despite the fact that couples accessing IVF, officially recognised as infertile after undergoing treatment often conceive a child naturally, says new research from the National French research institute by Penelope Trude.
For example, there are cases where couples conceiving even after a failed IVF cycle, says Reuters. Plus, some couples suddenly refused treatment because suddenly became pregnant. Such cases doctors call this a spontaneous pregnancy.
This phenomenon was decided to be investigated in details by the French scientists. They collected data on 2100 couples who were treated for infertility in the early 2000s. About 1,300 pairs successfully gave birth to a child by IVF. After 8-10 years couples answered questions if they had a child after treatment by itself.
Among parents who born child through IVF, 17% gave birth to another child, but in a natural way. Among couples who initially had treatment failures, 24% experienced spontaneous pregnancy. By the way, Penelope Trude believes that couples with infertility of unknown cause have a greater chance of spontaneous pregnancy.
May 4, 2012
Scientists have confirmed the efficacy of anti-psychotic drugs in schizophrenia. Corresponding study was conducted by a team led by Stefan Leucht from the Technical University of Munich, Germany. A report on this work published in the journal The Lancet.
Leucht and his colleagues from the U.S. and Greece, analyzed data from 65 clinical trials conducted from 1959 to 2011. In trials of anti-psychotic medications (including haloperidol, chlorpromazine, aripiprazole, clozapine and risperidone) was attended by almost 6.5 thousand patients with schizophrenia.
According to the work, the risk of relapse of mental illness within one year in patients treated with anti-psychotics was twice lower than in the control group, whose members received a placebo. Proportion of patients who are due to the exacerbation of schizophrenia needed hospitalisation in these groups were 10 and 26 percent respectively.
The researchers also assessed the frequency of adverse side effects of anti-psychotic drugs. In particular, movement disorders were observed in 16 percent of patients receiving medication, and 9 percent of the participants in the control group. Experienced pronounced sedation, respectively 13 and 9 percent of patients.
The study authors noted that the paper does not take into account the side effects of anti-psychotics, developing chronic administration of these drugs. However, they said, the results confirm the efficacy of these drugs for the prevention of exacerbations of schizophrenia.
Apr 27, 2012
Bowel Cancer & Aspirin
Suffering from colon cancer patients have a good chance to reduce the risk of death from this disease through daily aspirin - to this conclusion recently came British researchers.
For several years, a team of scientists analysed the status of 4500 cancer patients in the Netherlands, which, as an alternative or in addition to traditional methods of treatment were prescribed aspirin. All volunteers received a dose of 80 mg. aspirin a day - the minimum dose that is prescribed to people suffering from diseases of the cardiovascular system. As a result, in this kind of therapy, the risk of dying from bowel cancer, the average for the control group decreased by 33%.
Despite the obvious advantages of this therapy, doctors still warn against it to begin to apply a wide scale right now - they say is necessary to conduct additional research in this area. However, today there are many reputable research scientists, in which statistically proved the benefits of aspirin as a possible means of reducing the possibility of developing cancer, as well as the drug that can effectively slow down its development. Taking aspirin for three months after diagnosis - bowel cancer a person can reduce the risk of developing cancer by 12% in the case to extend the period of 6 months, this figure increases to 23%, respectively, and at 9 months, about 33 people % has a lower chance of dying from their disease.
Aspirin is a very mysterious drug, since the benefits of its use by healthy people are still unclear. However, the main reason that aspirin is still not widely used in the treatment of cancer, lies in the fact that its regular use can cause unpleasant side effects, particularly fatal internal bleeding. The higher the dose, the greater the risk, which ultimately turns out to be the stumbling block for scientists, which they did not manage to get around.
Apr 24, 2012
'Universal' Cancer Gene
For a long time in the BRCA1 gene mutation was linked to breast cancer in women. However, as shown by recent research of the Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden fund, this phenomenon also increases the possibility of prostate cancer is nearly four times, writes The Telegraph.
In this connection, experts suggest men at risk (persons who have relatives with cancer) take genetic screening and, thus, to assess their risk. In general, according to scientists, the presence of a defective version of BRCA1 gene corresponds to one chance of developing cancer by 11 to 65 years. Moreover, this gene is associated with a particularly aggressive form of cancer.
With regard to breast cancer, BRCA1 increases the risk five-fold. Some women, identifying with a genetic mutation, preferred to remove the breast, without waiting for the disease. Incidentally, BRCA1 was paired with ovarian cancer.
As commented by the author of the research Professor Rosы Ilis: "Our study showed that men with prostate cancer have a chance out of 200 for changes in the gene. A man with a mutation have a risk of disease, increased by 3.8 times. Fortunately, for today date, there are drugs that act on the gene BRCA1".
By the way, previously, scientists have identified mutations in the gene HOXB13. They increased the probability of prostate cancer by 20 times. This phenomenon is relatively rare and occurs in less than 2% of men with prostate cancer.
Apr 20, 2012
Implantable Device Will Warn of Infarction
The medical device developed in the U.S. alerts the owner of an impending heart attack. Portable cardiac monitoring system has been created by specialists of AngelMed.
The system consists of an implantable device that is equipped with sensors to determine the electrical activity of the heart. When you register signals, indicating an inadequate excitation of ventricular pacemaker begins to vibrate and transmit data to an external device. It gives, in turn, the patient an additional sound and light signals.
Depending on the identified abnormalities in the heart of the device has two types of signalling. Low priority signals mean that the patient should see a doctor within two days after emergence. The signals indicate high importance on the possible development of myocardial infarction, when they occur, the patient should lead a team of doctors.
Clinical trials of cardiac monitoring systems, which involve more than a thousand people, conducted in 75 U.S. hospitals. In addition, the device has been approved to use regulatory authorities in Brazil.
Apr 17, 2012
Antibiotics Increase Obesity Risk
Maintaining a constant weight is a complex process that depends on many variables. However, even taking into account many of them one can run into pitfalls. Abstracts to any antibiotic usually includes an impressive list of side effects ranging from hallucinations and ending with allergic reactions. But almost none of the instructions on the application you will not find mention of the fact that antibiotics can lead to obesity.
According to the article published in the journal New Scientist, the abuse of antibacterial drugs can become a serious impetus to obesity. This may be due to the fact that antibiotics reduce the number of beneficial micro-flora in the intestinal tract. It is known that the micro-flora protects from infections and cancer, but it turns out, it also prevents the development of obesity.
Some studies in mice have shown that the use of antibiotics makes them gain weight. This is not surprising when you consider that antibiotics are often used to speed animal growth, planned to slaughter.
Researchers from the University of New York gave mice with antibiotics, such as those that get kids (in short courses). Compared with the control group, these animals had lower levels of T-lymphocytes responsible for immune response. But obesity is also associated with low levels of T-lymphocytes.
In another study published in the International Journal of Obesity, Danish researchers tracked the health of 28,000 babies. They found that children who received antibiotics within six months after birth were more likely to be overweight within the next seven years, regardless of the weight of their mothers.
Apr 13, 2012
Genetic Causes of Autoimmune Diseases
Weakened immune system function leads to primary immunodeficiencies, which are often complicated by the paradoxical autoimmune reactions. For example, patients with hyper-IgM syndrome caused by activation-induced cytidine deaminase, AID are prone to autoimmune diseases, an enzyme necessary for the interclass recombination and somatic hyper-mutation of B-lymphocytes.
American scientists from Yale University School of Medicine studied the negative impact of AID deficiency on the tolerance of early B-lymphocytes, using the method of ELISA, to assess the reactivity of recombinant antibodies isolated from single B lymphocytes from patients with deficiency of AID.
Young and mature B cells isolated from these patients expressed abnormal Ig repertoire with a high incidence of auto-reactive antibodies. This shows that AID is required to maintain both central and peripheral tolerance of B lymphocytes. In addition, in the future in patients with AID deficiency have even more disturbed B-cell tolerance, as evidenced by the presence in serum of all patients, antinuclear IgM antibodies.
Thus, this study revealed the important role of AID in the removal of developing auto-reactive B-lymphocytes.
Materials of the research are presented in the article of Meyers G, et al. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for B-cell tolerance in humans.
Apr 10, 2012
Aging And Nutrition
30 years is an important step for a person. According to the research of the State Research Center of Preventive Medicine, people who turned this line must be strongly engaged in the prevention of diseases associated with aging and age-related changes.
"Health - is the value that is given to everyone for free by nature. But reserve of this gift is 30 years. And then people should start to work. If you work on behavioral risk factors, you can protect yourself from diseases that reduce life. These include cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes mellitus, "- advise scientists.
Experts linked behavioral factors to the incorrect over-nutrition, smoking and physical inactivity. That is, up to 25 years, note scientists, a person can eat as much as he wants. However, this does not apply to those people who are predisposed to be overweight. But after 30 years, even slim people start to gain weight.
Moreover, according to studies, many in 50 years are of the same diet, that 18 or 30 years. But the body needs less. As a result, an excess of carbohydrates and fat turns into extra pounds. A separate question is the internal abdominal obesity. Because of this it raises blood pressure, develops atherosclerosis and diabetes.
Apr 6, 2012
The First 3D Prostate Surgery
New technologies have now become an integral part of medicine. Researchers from Queen's University of Manchester, UK, conducted a unique operation to remove the prostate with the use of cybernetic technology and 3D modelling.
According to experts, the use of robots allows for delicate precision of each movement, which almost completely eliminates the risk of any medical errors and significantly reduces the risk of complications, while the creation of three-dimensional model gives a very clear and complete picture of operation. This test operation is being conducted has caused delight of her surgeons. The essence of 3D modelling is that by scanning the patient's body in a special high-resolution screen displays the status of a particular organ, and the standard three-dimensional glasses allow doctors to see three-dimensional image.
In recognition of surgeons, this approach simplifies even the most complex operations, and at the same time significantly reduces the time spent on them - an average of three to four times. Carried out the operation the surgeon Dan Burke said he hoped that soon the new technology will be available for a large number of patients. "It's really a new word in medicine. Those operations that we considered too difficult or even impossible for us now acquired a new image. Now is the time when the surgeon spends 15 hours in a single operation will remain in the past - the existence of such a clear and accessible information, together with mathematical precision computer simulations make it much easier tasks before us. The risk affect the nerves or muscles is not easy to get a minimum - it disappears. "
Many experts now say that very soon the profession a surgeon, as such, will disappear. They say, that the had of the doctor on operating table will completely replace a mechanical systems of computer. However, the surgeons themselves say that if such a time will come, this will not happen soon because the design and build a computer algorithm is clear of even the simplest operation is incredibly difficult. And at the same time, each operation requires an individual approach. Thus, surgery is unlikely to ever lose its human face.
Apr 3, 2012
Obesity Increases The Risk Of Kidney Cancer
A recent study found that obesity is a key risk factor that can lead to cancer of the kidneys. Excessive amounts of body fat in humans increases the risk of this type of cancer by 70%, while smoking - only 50%.
Today, kidney cancer is one of the most rapidly progressing in numbers kind of cancer. According to official statistics, in 1975 in the UK there were only 2,300 cases of kidney cancer, but by 2009 this figure had risen to 9,000 formal documented clinical cases.
The statistical study by British scientists, concludes that people today are less aware of the health risks associated with obesity. "Most people have a vague idea that excessive weight can substantially increase the risk of certain forms of cancer, even more than all the other factors, including smoking and consumption of large amounts of carcinogens" - according to the report on the study. Experts say obesity is also substantially increases the risk of malignant tumours in the breast, colon and uterus. However, in most cases, an increased risk for certain types of cancer there is no reason to direct the formation of free radicals.
This relationship is somewhat more complicated - the whole point of special protective hormones are produced in a certain amount of healthy people and prevent their development and spread of cancer tumors. In that case, if a person is obese, the development of these hormones in the body is suppressed, and the person becomes more susceptible to the influence of the most free radicals.
The number of smokers in the UK has declined substantially over the past 35 years, while the number of people with a body mass index above 25 (i.e. obese people) currently stands at 70% among men and 60% among women. It is from these figures, scientists are now linked by the fact that during the period from 2005 to 2009 the incidence of kidney cancer among the population grew by 85% and continues to grow rapidly today.
Mar 30, 2012
New Vaccine Against Cervical Cancer
Scientists in Australia have created a new vaccine against cervical cancer, development of which is due to the presence of human papillomavirus infection. According to the local division of Associated Press, the development of the drug released by the biotechnology company Coridon, led by Ian Fraser.
At the present time to prevent cervical cancer which has developed due to infection of human papilloma virus (HPV), are used "Gardasil" and "Cervarix" vaccines produced by pharmaceutical companies Merck and GlaxoSmithKline, respectively.
The distinction of the drug, created by Fraser and his colleagues, is that it not only protects against HPV infection, but also stimulates the immune response to an existing infection in the body. The effectiveness of vaccination was confirmed by the results of preclinical animal studies. Currently, developers are preparing to conduct clinical trials involving patients.
According to Fraser, many women are already carriers of HPV, so they can not reduce the risk of developing cancer of the cervix, using for vaccination "Gardasil" or "Cervarix". He also suggested that the mechanism of action of new drug will be used to create a vaccine against herpes infection.
Oncogenic strains of HPV cause 70 percent of cervical cancers and about 60 percent of cancers of the mouth and pharynx. In most cases, the infection time passes without any treatment. For the discovery of the role of papillomaviruses in the development of cervical cancer by the German scientist Harald zur Hausen in 2008 was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Mar 27, 2012
As a result of a new statistical study organized by a group of scientists from the UK found that such a popular and common today, programs and courses that offer people free themselves from nicotine addiction, in fact, are completely useless. The study involved 2500 smokers.
They were divided into four groups, each of which the participants were tasked to stop the habit. However, the first group received minimal support in its endeavour in the form of telephone consultations on a "hot line" and provide some simple tips from the experts. The second, third and fourth at the same time subjected to the passage of intense training to combat nicotine addiction with nicotine patches, special substitutes, chewing gum, and even some medicines.
After six months after the initiation of the study, scientists were able to contact only 59% of the subjects. It turned out that this number only 18.9% of participants were able to test the actual or smoke during this time, with no difference in this indicator among the control groups were found. Moreover, it is interesting that in the first group the success rate of quitting was 20.1%, while the average for the other three groups the figure is 17.1%. Thus, it appears that when a person quits smoking, without the active assistance, it is much more likely to succeed. Almost 80% of the number of subjects who stopped smoking, have agreed to be tested for carbon monoxide, to prove that they really got rid of the addiction. Others refused to pass this test, in almost every case, citing for a lack of free time.
According to the researchers, the results are likely to argue that the various courses and anti-tobacco programs for the most part ineffective. The most important thing in terms of smoking cessation is the mental attitude of man, that is, his own determination to quit the habit. All other factors will have only a secondary importance - believe scientists.
Mar 23, 2012
Obesity Lowers IQ Levels
Obesity, especially in the elderly, has very negative impact on the mental faculties of man - a group of Korean scientists came to this conclusion.
The study involved a group of 250 people aged 60 to 70 years found that the more subjects was waist size, the more they showed poor performance during the passage of the cognitive tests. As the main indicators of obesity, scientists took the two main criteria: body mass index, as well as the amount of fat in the abdominal area. Interestingly, in patients older than 70 years of high body mass index and obesity were not in any way connected with the results of cognitive tests, suggesting that at this age, this factor is no longer influence the state of intelligence.
Currently, scientists are planning to organize a similar study in other age groups. They are interested in how the relationship between brain function and body mass index can alter in aging.
In an interview, lead study author Dae Hyun Yoon said: "Our body is interconnected, and the results clearly showed us that. Indicators of intelligence, memory, and basic cognitive functions in the control group with obesity were on average 25% lower than in other subjects. Do not forget that obesity is one of the key factors in the development of diseases of the cardiovascular system, if we add together the disease in this category, with degenerative diseases of the brain, we have about 40% of deaths of people aged 60 to 70 years. It is clear that obesity should be avoided if you want to prolong your life".
For reference, the rates of obesity in recent years has been steadily increasing throughout the civilized world. The main reason for this phenomenon, according to experts, is the increase the popularity of various types of alcoholic beverages such as beer, and distribution of fast food. In the UK alone indicators of consumption of beer increased by 25% over the past 10 years, reaching the maximum indicator in the history of the United Kingdom. Roughly similar dynamics shows the statistics of obesity.
Mar 20, 2012
STAT3 Gene For Immunity
Geneticists have found a unique gene STAT3. It turned out that it is needed for normal immunity. This discovery offers hope for a cure immune deficiency and autoimmune diseases, says Life Science.
It is known that the normal function of immunity is a balance. Immunity to resist pathogens and at the same time not to injure the cells of the body. Garvan Institute staff revealed why it is possible to maintain this balance.
A team of specialists under the leadership of Cindy Ma and Stuart Tang found: mutations in the gene STAT3 provoked by the fact that the body can not produce IL-21, necessary for development of Tfh cells.
Cells Tfh, in turn, allows B cells to produce long-lasting and powerful antibodies. These antibodies fight with infections. The so-called memory B-cells generated in the process, make it possible in future to recognize pathogens.
That is, the gene STAT3 initiates a chain reaction, including activation of complex signaling pathways, without which T cells could help B-cells, the researchers conclude.
Mar 16, 2012
Placental Stem Cells
Swiss scientists are on the way to the discovery of a method for treating brain injury of children, obtained during childbirth. A study conducted by Dr. Martin Muller Medical Sciences in conjunction with a group of researchers from the University of Bern Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Bern showed that stem cells derived from the placenta, can significantly improve the condition of children suffering from neonatal encephalopathy.
One of the main causes of neonatal brain damage are premature births. Despite tremendous efforts to prevent this, traumatic brain injury remains one of the largest clinical problems of premature infants. Most cases of neonatal encephalopathy occur in infants with very low birth weight, and include both hypoxia-ischemia and inflammation. In 25-50% of cases the appearance of cognitive and behavioral disorders.
The experiment was conducted by Swiss scientists using mesenchymal stem cells derived from placenta. "Stem cells are a promising source for transplantation after brain injury. They retain the ability to divide throughout life and can turn into more than 200 cell types that may contribute to the ability to upgrade and repair of tissues" - said Martin Mueller.
Neuroprotective effect of introduced cells was studied in rats by scientists who have simulated brain injury. "In our study, donor cells survived, migrated to the targeted damaged areas of the brain, and resulted in neurological improvement". Today the problem of brain damage in infants is acute and is not solved. However, scientists are hoping that soon they proposed method will be further developed and put into everyday medical practice.
Mar 13, 2012
Sweetener Causes Convulsions & Oncology
Last year, the European Centre for cancer research at the Foundation Rammazini published study that is widely used today in the manufacture of most diet drinks sweetener aspartame may cause the early development of cancer. Scientists encourage to limit the use of the chemical elements containing this product children, because in their case the consequences can be devastating as well as irreversible.
However, last week, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published 8000 complaints of side effects from eating foods with high aspartame concentrations. Many complaints were initiated by physicians, according to the conclusion that this is a chemical element was the cause of various health problems. That such effects from the use of these products included, among others: hallucinations, diarrhea, cramps, depression, migraine, fatigue and insomnia. Also on the conclusion of medical experts was also aspartame may be the cause of many cancers and infertility.
However, in addition to a brief declaration that a carefully controlled clinical studies have shown that aspartame is not allergenic, FDA also ruled that products containing aspartame must include a warning about the inadmissibility of their use by people sensitive to compounds of phenylalanine. Also, members continue to insist that "today there is no scientific data or the results of research on what aspartame can be recognized as a carcinogen, and its application, accordingly, would not be limited by this fact until it finds its evidence base".
Existing research does not recognize the FDA, noting that aspartame today has not been tested on humans, thus a priori recognising that its impact on the human body has not yet been studied, and not excluding the fact that hypothetically it could be dangerous.
Mar 7, 2012
Vitamin E May Adversely Affect Bones
It turns out that not all vitamins are extremely beneficial for our body. According to a new study published in the journal Nature, vitamin E may have a negative impact on human bones. Mice that received in excess of this vitamin with food, showed a significant reduction in bone mass to a critical level, which could lead to multiple fractures. Today it is known that significant advantages for the bone structure brings a regular intake of vitamin D, while the relationship between bone health and vitamin E to the present day have been studied relatively little.
The size and density of bones in the body is not fixed in adulthood - it is literally within our whole life depends on compliance with a certain balance between the cells of osteoblasts, which create new bone cells and osteoclasts, which block the data process. Researchers have suggested that vitamin E may contribute to the formation of osteoclasts, resulting in the body loses more bone mass than the produce. This study, by the way, it seems completely refutes the results of the analysis in 2010 in which scientists proposed a hypothesis that regular use of vitamin E is beneficial for older people to maintain the bone structure of their bodies in optimal condition.
According to scientists, talking about the loss of bone structure is primarily the case when a person uses vitamin E together with the additives. Naturally a person would be difficult to regularly receive a number of substances, which would have been able to cause to his bone a real damage. It should also be remembered that people almost vitamin can be harmful to our bodies, in the event that it is consumed in excess. Vitamin E is found in large quantity is contained in the oils, green vegetables such as spinach and broccoli, as well as in some varieties of nuts such as almonds and hazelnuts. By the way, today, some scientists suggest that synthetic vitamin E is losing its many useful properties, in particular the ability to prevent the degeneration of nerve tissue of man, and plus everything can cause cancer of the prostate.
Mar 1, 2012
New Blood Groups Revealed
Researchers from the University of Vermont identified on the surface of red blood cells two proteins responsible for the two new blood group systems, which are called Langereis and Junior.
According to lead author Bryan Ballif, "very few people who know whether Langereis or Junior are negative or positive. Meanwhile, blood transfusion may be a big problem." It is known that Junior-negative are over 50,000 Japanese, and these people may be faced with transfusion complications or incompatibility of mother and fetus. Quite often, this system is found in the blood and the European Roma.
In addition to the well-known blood group systems ABO and Rhesus, within which the selected compatible blood group, the International Blood Transfusion Society recognized 28 additional blood group systems, including groups with names like Duffy, Kidd, Diego, and Lutheran.
Antigens and Junior Lanzhereys were isolated about 10 years ago in a pregnant Japanese woman who threatened miscarriage due to a mysterious blood group incompatibility with the fetus. However, the molecular genetic basis of this phenomenon remains unclear.
Vermont scientists in collaboration with the French and Japanese colleagues isolated two proteins from the surface of red blood cells - AVSV6 AVSG2, related to the so-called transport proteins (they carry a variety of metabolites and ions into the cell and out). This was followed by genetic testing that confirmed the relationship of these proteins with formation of blood antigen systems Langereis and Junior.
The authors also found an association of newly-found proteins resistance to anticancer drugs used, particularly in the treatment of breast cancer.
According to Ballifa, currently unknown may be left more the order of 10-15 blood group systems.
Feb 23, 2012
Cold Baths Ease Muscle Pain
Taking a cold bath after a hard workout can somewhat soothe the pain in the muscles, but it is not clear how such an approach is safe - experts say.
Sudden immersion in cold water the body is a real shock to the body, and may well carry with it a threat to human health - sure, scientists from the Research Center of Cochran in the UK. After a series of independent tests involving 366 experts have concluded that taking into account all available data, such techniques should not be recommended for use. According to them, today there are many equally effective, but less potentially damaging ways to deal with muscle pain after exercise.
In particular, we are talking about jogging or immersed in a warm bath. It should be noted that the idea of immersing the body in cold water after a workout is from cryotherapy, and focused on the removal of edema, and reduction of muscle stiffness, and reduce the pain associated with development of lactic acid. This technique is quite a long time began to be used in professional sports, but more recently its popularity is rapidly growing and amateur athletes. In particular, it contributed to the words of the famous British showman Eddie Izzard, who last year for the 51 days ran 43 marathons to raise money for charity. According to him, the ice bath was for him a necessary means to ensure that "his legs were not swollen".
Immersion in cold water is dangerous for people suffering from diseases of the cardiovascular system. They have a similar approach could provoke an even stronger shock, which in turn can cause a heart attack. In healthy people, cold baths are highly likely to undermine health, and first of all, again - the health of the heart. According to the researchers, "In recent years we have seen many people with heart disease among the players in rugby league amateur level. Perhaps not the least factor in these statistics is that every club rugby in recent years, there are cans of ice-cold water, where players dive, one after another, trying to cool off a bit.
Feb 21, 2012
Immunity Depends On Body's Biological Clock
At different times of the day the body is completely different risk infections - are convinced scientists from the United States. In their view, the biological clock to a large extent is determined of how the immune system protects us.
In this report the results of a new study published in the journal Immunity, scientists have demonstrated how it changes the chemical composition of the body and how it affects the body's protective processes in the full 24-hour cycle. Gaps in the so-called circadian rhythm, which may be associated with the change of time zones as a result, especially long flights, long distance, leads to the fact that the risk of viral infections in humans may significantly increase a few times if it does not take certain measures.
Researchers from Yale University in the United States conducted a study on one of the components of the immune system - the protein TLR9, which is designed to detect the virus after it enters the human body. At various times, the protein is produced in varying quantities - in particular in the period from 02:00 am to 06:00 am, when a person usually sleeps, the level of production of this protein is located at the lowest level - the researchers note. This fact, incidentally, may explain the well-known medical fact that people got blood poisoning or sepsis, in this time period have the greatest chance of dying. In any case, their condition is very likely to be much more severe than in those who become infected with 14:00 to 18:00 when the production of this protein, however, is the greatest.
As a result, after the flight of our biological clocks can run off and on during our sleep cycle would account for the active development of protective proteins, and for a period of waking the body, however, will remain without protection. According to researchers, today is the very real prospect of creating products that will literally be able to adjust our internal clocks in the required mode, which will significantly reduce the stressing on the body due to change of time zones. According to experts, these drugs may appear in the next 2-3 years.
Feb 17, 2012
Development Of Alzheimer's Disease
U.S. scientists have developed a new diagnostic method that allows to predict the development of dementia. According to Science Daily, clinical trials methodology was conducted by a team of specialists led by Gary Small from the University of California at Los Angeles.
Were selected 43 volunteers to participate in the study, whose average age was 64 years. In 21 subjects revealed a moderate decline in mental abilities, which is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. The level of these abilities in the remainder of the match volunteers age norm.
The group of Gary Small has developed biochemical marker FDDNP, which binds to amyloid and tau-protein. Abnormal accumulation of these substances in the form of plaques in the nervous tissue and cause the development of dementia. The presence of the marker can be detected by positron emission tomography (PET). Using the described technique, the researchers assessed the level of bound FDDNP in frontal, parietal and temporal lobes of the brain. These departments are responsible for making decisions, forming opinions, memories and emotions.
Two years after the study Alzheimer's disease was diagnosed in 6 out of 21 volunteers with mild cognitive decline. The level of bound FDDNP in frontal and parietal lobes of the six men was higher than that of other participants who were examined using the new method. In addition, two members of the control group with the highest bound FDDNP two years after the study had been diagnosed a moderate decline in mental abilities.
In the next phase of work, scientists are planning to invite a larger number of volunteers and increase the observation time for the participants. In addition, using a new technique, researchers intend to evaluate the efficacy of substances that prevent the accumulation of amyloid and tau protein in the brain, in particular, curcumin derived from turmeric spice.
Feb 13, 2012
Heart Treatment At The Subcellular Level
Results of the first comprehensive study of the tiny micro RNA molecules that are specific to each cell, have confirmed their importance for normal functioning of the heart. Experts say their first step towards the development of targeted therapy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
A team of scientists led by Professor Thomas Preiss and Dr. Jennifer Clancy began their global study in 2008. With the latest sequencing methods scientists were able to detect and identify thousands of microRNA (short molecules of ribonucleic acid) in the cells of the heart.
In an article for a scientific journal «PLoS ONE» Professor Preiss said that microRNAs are important regulators required for each cell. Moreover, each cell its own set of microRNAs, which provides its functioning. MicroRNAs can be compared with an army of ants, each of which is responsible for some variation in gene expression. A tiny and insignificant, each individually, together they are able to drastically change the cell. Namely failures in their work cause the disease.
"The changes caused by the failure of miRNAs are similar to changes in the number of cardiovascular diseases. This is important from the standpoint of microRNAs in the diagnosis and therapy - explained Dr. Clancy. - Note that some of these therapies are already in clinical research, but now that we know more about the tens of thousands of miRNAs in the heart, they may be, it is necessary to revise and optimize the number. "
"It is important that, thanks to the latest technology, we were able to visually identify and describe in detail the tens of thousands of miRNAs in the heart. It turned out that many of them do not take such forms as in other organs, and thus are not as previously thought - said Professor Preiss. - We hope to continue and describe in detail the features of miRNAs in the tissue of the heart sick person in order to facilitate the development of new therapies. "
Feb 6, 2012
The Automated System For Cancer Diagnosis
U.S. scientists have developed a diagnostic system to detect cancer cells in the blood test, which is comparable to the accuracy of diagnosis with a biopsy of the tumor.
"This is the next generation technology. It significantly increases our ability to monitor, predict and understand the progression of cancer, including its metastasis, which is the main cause of death in cancer patients," - said the head of development Peter Kuhn from the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla. He added that in some situations, the method is close to the effectiveness of a surgical biopsy.
The new diagnostic system, called HD-CTC (from circulating tumor cells), using a digital microscope and image-processing software analyzes the blood sample, separating the potentially cancerous cells from erythrocytes and leukocytes. The image selected "suspicious" cells with morphological signs of tumor, and then provided pathologist who makes the final conclusion.
Five studies of the new method have shown that in comparison with the applicable now "concentrating" systems (such as CellSearch), the concentrate the abnormal cells, it is much less likely to screen out cancer cells in the preliminary phase, which reduces the risk of false negative results.
During the experiments, HD-CTC was able to detect metastatic tumor in 43-80 percent of the volunteers (depending on the specific type of cancer), including the early stages of the disease, without a single false positive conclusion.
In addition, the new system provides high quality images of tumor cells and their aggregates in high definition. As explained by Kuhn, the installation of the system is also easily amenable to modification to determine the cell of another type, or any other method.
HD-CTC is expected to be used for monitoring disease progression in patients identified as well as for screening for malignant tumors.
Jan 30, 2012
Optimal Levels Of Vitamin D
No matter what it is about - cancer, infectious diseases, injuries or diseases of the cardiovascular system - vitamin D will help you from all above mentioned diseases - such conclusions were made by researchers who conducted the new statistical study.
It turns out that when your body gets vitamin D in excess then the risk of premature death from any medical reasons is reduced by 30%. The thing is that the element that has a truly unique properties allows our bodies to achieve a balance between the state of the four main elements - the immune system, cardiovascular health, bone health and normal metabolism.
But more importantly - vitamin D provides a healthy cell replication of DNA structures. To put it simply, in each organ of our body has a continuous process of the withering away of the old cells and the birth of new cells to replace them. However, to ensure that the new cells will be healthier, or at least, as healthier than the previous ones, is difficult. And if they are not born as such, the term is not as difficult to guess, would lead to the development of various diseases. Vitamin D is now the only element for which it is proved that it really helps to secure these processes and the light of the risk of negative changes at the cellular level to a minimum. But here's another fact about vitamin D, which you should know - in the modern world, its level in the average population of developed countries is disastrously low, and decreases in proportion to the person's age. Its fairly could be recognized as a vitamin, which most people do not have enough, but until now the statistical studies on this topic were not conducted.
It is important to note that fifty percent of U.S. citizens have a level of vitamin D of 30 ng / ml, and 40% had severe deficiency (below 20 ng / ml). However, it is interesting that according to most currently available studies, the risk of development of various forms of cancer in this case at the proper level of vitamin D in the body is reduced to the level of 15% to 70%. In particular, the risk of colorectal cancer is reduced by 40% compared with the standard.
Jan 23, 2012
Animals May Harbor "Human" Emotions
Most of the medical experiments, due to which we now have modern medicine and know a lot and the functioning of the basic biological processes in living organism has been put on the animals - particularly rats, rabbits and other animals.
In almost all the time there were many people who wanted to limit such experiments, however, representatives of the medical community has traditionally argued that it is for the benefit of us humans, and it is only animals that will not only have a limited intellect, but are not able to feed many emotions preferring to be guided by instinct. However, a recent study by researchers carried out on animals again (this time on rats) demonstrated that in fact the man have mistaken for a long time - the animal is able to feed most that on is the "human feelings".
A new study were involved several hundred of rats. The experiment took place as follows - one of the rats was placed in a trap - a narrow cell with a special latch, which could not open from the inside, but which at the same time quite easily be opened from the outside. The second rat dispensed to walk in space around the cells for 1 hour. The scientists watched to whether or not a rat to show compassion to someone in distress. And amazingly - 23 of 30 rats targeted approach to the cage and opened it. The researchers also conducted additional research in order to understand - do not reveal whether the mechanism of rat cells out of pure curiosity. In the case where the trap was empty, only 5 of 40 rats showed an interest in the mechanism.
In other trials a rat was offered an alternative - the food or the salvation of its comrades. It is interesting that in almost every case, a hungry rat not only chose the second option, but later shared their food with the eliberated comrade. Needless to say, that such action is contrary to every instinct of animals, and moreover, such behavior is difficult to find even among the people. It was also observed that female rats by approximately 25% exhibit empathy more than males, which corresponds approximately to the present situation in human society.
Jan 16, 2012
Fish Makes Babies Less Prone To Allergies
Today is well-known the fact that the child's health is determined by the food, which made use of his mother during pregnancy, as well as those that consumed himself in the early years of his life.
Proper nutrition forms a strong immune system, optimal metabolic processes, adequate physical and intellectual development, and much more. Improper diet can eventually lead to the fact that the risk of certain diseases in children is significantly overvalued. In a new study published in the journal Acta Paediatrica, were provided evidence that feeding the baby with the fish in the first nine months of his life greatly reduces the chance of developing allergic diseases in him during his later life. At the same time, it was revealed that an absolutely any procedures with the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, in contrast, significantly increases the risk of wheezing, asthma and various allergic reactions.
A large study was conducted by scientists from Sweden. There were randomly selected 8176 families with newborn babies. The researchers analyzed what foods mostly reduce the risk of various allergic reactions and respiratory problems in children of preschool age. It was found that the most useful in this regard is the fish - it reduces the risk of such diseases, at least at half. Researchers have not yet taken to say what specific kind of fish is most useful for prevention of various allergies and respiratory problems in children. However, according to an official report - the most frequently used in Swedish families had a white fish and salmon, herring and mackerel - they accounted for 97% of fish products in the diet of the analyzed families.
In parallel, the study showed definitive inadmissibility of the use of broad spectrum antibiotics for children under the age of 4.5 years. The risk of developing breathing problems, allergies and various inflammatory processes is doubled, and the importance of proper nutrition in the first months of life while completely leveled - then these diseases occur with a probability of 50%, exceeding the average values - the researchers note.
Jan 9, 2012
Exercises In The Second Trimester
A recent clinical study showed that women who regularly perform physical exercises in the second half of pregnancy, however did not decrease the risk of developing diabetes during pregnancy, or gestational diabetes. The study involved 855 pregnant women at term from 18 to 22 weeks were divided into two groups. The first group exercised for an hour three times a week for 12 weeks (aerobic, strength training, stretching). In addition, they did the exercises at home twice a week. The second group had a normal life. By the third trimester gestational diabetes was diagnosed in 7% of women in the first group and 6% - from the second.
The head of research, Signe N. Stafne from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, was surprised with the results: generally, exercises for the population are surest means of preventing type 2 diabetes. "Maybe the exercise have different effects on type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes," - says Stafne. "Nevertheless, moderate exerciseare beneficial for pregnant women as they improve health and keep weight within normal limits," - he adds.
An estimated gestational diabetes develops in 14% of pregnant women worldwide. After birth, this condition passes off, but it can lead to several complications of pregnancy, such as large fetus. In addition, these women have increased risk of type 2 diabetes in the future.
Interestingly, in the first group only 55% of women strictly observed the prescribed treatment sessions. "It seems that research shows mostly how difficult is to make pregnant women do exercises, rather than useless exercises themselves," - said Dr. Rita W. Driggers, an obstetrician-gynecologist in Washington, who was not involved in the study. In addition, only 13% of women in the first group kept the intensity of exercise of moderate to high. "Maybe we want too much from them," - said Dr. Driggers.
American Staff of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends for pregnant to do moderate exercise, such as walking for 30 minutes a day.
The study is published in the journal "Obstetrics & Gynecology".
Jan 3, 2012
Proper Diet Can Protect The Brain From Aging
A diet rich in vitamins and minerals can protect the brain from aging, assess the scientists. If the human diet is dominated by monotonous food, more harmful than helpful, the opposite effect can be observed - the aging process in our brain is accelerating.
Especially harmful to brain cells are the so-called trans fats found mostly in fast foods, for example in all of prepared meat products. They are the greatest medicine of all known nutrients can stimulate negative changes in the human brain, the researchers note.
Thus, it becomes clear why some elderly people who in the age of 60-65 start to suffer from problems with memory, vision, and inhibition of thought, while others are able to live up to 90 years while maintaining strong mind and a sober memory. Scientists advise people to start thinking about the state of the brain in advance, as one's aging to a certain extent different from the rest of the aging body. Thus, if the body does not get the necessary minerals and vitamins, it quickly begins to lose its power. As a result, the person experiences memory deterioration and cognitive function of thinking. From this went the well-known myth that people who regularly consume fast foods, do not "shine" with intelligence.
However, our brain is not at all 'demanding'. The most important thing to it is that diet should contain vitamins B, C, D and E, omega-3 fats, as well as at least a quarter consisted of vegetables and fruits. Also contrary to another widely known myth is not always sweet foods are good for the brain - the various cookies, cakes and pies can also contain trans fats. Our diet is reflected in particular on the size of our brain. Man, regularly eating properly can have a brain in a volume of 20% more than the person who has in the blood large amounts of trans fats. According to Maret Traber from the University of Oregon, "today there are many myths about food, and that it may be harmful or beneficial. We now can you say for sure - regularly eat fish of different varieties, as well as fruits and vegetables in large quantities, and you'll not only have a healthy brain, but completely healthy body".
Dec 26, 2011
Folic Acid Prevents Laryngeal Cancer
Folic acid can cause partial or complete regression of leukoplakia larynx - diseases related to precancer, according to the Cancer magazine. These findings were made by scientists from the Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, conducted a study involving 43 patients.
All patients were diagnosed with leukoplakia - single or multiple whitish spots, located on the mucosa of the larynx. This is a disease that affects mainly smokers, in many cases becomes the larynx.
Within six months the patients took folic acid tablets - 5 mg three times a day.
Treatment with folic acid was effective in 31 patients, suggests study leader Giovanni Almadori. Among them, 19 patients experienced partial regression of the disease - the spot size decreased by more than 2 times. In 12 cases there was a complete cure of the disease: symptoms of leukoplakia were absent.
The role of folic acid in cancer development has been identified recently. Studies have shown that in the blood of patients with head and neck cancer, as well as patients with leukoplakia larynx, reduced concentration of folic acid. In this regard, it has been hypothesized that low folate level is a risk factor for the development and progression of cancer.
Italian researchers were able to confirm this hypothesis. Currently, scientists are preparing for large-scale study, in which capacity will be evaluated folic acid to prevent the development of head and neck cancer patients after surgery to remove the larynx leukoplakia.
Dec 19, 2011
Sexual Life During Pregnancy
Sex late in pregnancy does not lead to premature birth. A new study debunked the popular notion that sexual relations in the last weeks of pregnancy can lead to preterm labor.
Data collected by scientists from Ohio State University Medical Center, suggest rather the opposite: expectant mothers who did not refuse sex in the last weeks of pregnancy born children on average later than those who abstain from sexual relations. In the first group the average duration of pregnancy was 39.9 weeks, whereas in the second - only 39.3 weeks.
The study involved 93 women who visited the gynecologist's office from the 37th week of pregnancy. 47 of them said that they continue to have sex with their partners. Thus, the number is not abstaining from sex during late pregnancy women was 50.5% - more than any of previous similar studies.
Measurement of cervical dilatation of women did not reveal any relationship between the state of the cervix and sexually active women.
According to the coordinator of a research project of Dr. Jonathan Shaffir, a sign of impending early birth may be discomfort in the abdomen and the pressure within the pelvis. Such feelings do not have to have sex, which probably explains the study identified a correlation between abstinence from sexual relations, and relatively rapid resolution of the burden.
In any case, the results clearly indicate that sexual activity in the later stages of pregnancy can cause premature birth, believes Shaffir. The full study report is published in the June issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.
Dec 12, 2011
Playing Football and Changes In The Brain
According to a recent study by a group of British scientists football players, who often play with the head, frequently face with head injuries, which are very clearly visible during the scanning of the brain. When considering the 32 amateur football players were found symptoms similar to those seen in patients with brain concussion.
The attention of the scientific community to this issue was attracted after the death of the famous British football-player Jeff Astle, the reason of his were the brain injury resulting from beating the ball. According to an official report of this kind of medical injuries were not the direct cause of death of a footballer, but they caused degenerative changes in brain structure, which, in turn, led to an unfavorable outcome.
According to the estimates of researchers the relatively safe rate is less than 1,000 head strikes during the year, however, that rate does not meet even the fans, not to mention professional athletes. And although the football balls now are much easier than in the 1960s, during Jeff Astle play, they still represent a real danger to the brain of players. It is estimated that during exercise ball can fly at a speed of 34 miles/hour or 55 miles per hour, while in the professional game, this figure is doubled. That is, in other words, the player can stop a ball with the head, flying at a speed of auto racing on the freeway. However, the injuries during the football games are inconspicuous - their symptoms are practically not felt, and as a result people may not even be aware that a health problem.
Scientists have also found that microtraumas can be confirmed by five divisions of the brain - a few areas in the anterior and posterior cortex, which are responsible for memory, attention, mechanical work and functioning of the visual system. According to scientists, the problems with these functions in a professional football player can deteriorate over time, and for the most part they are irreversible.
Dec 5, 2011
Bee Venom - A Universal Wrinkles Remedy
Bee venom is recognized as the new panacea for age-related changes of the skin, says The Daily Mail. As shown by tests, venom is able to activate the production of collagen, essential for skin elasticity.
Dr. Sun Mi Han of the National Academy of Agricultural Sciences of South Korea has created a line of cosmetics, the basis of which is namely bee venom. A New Zealand company Manuka Doctor promises that this tool will replace markets with Botox, as its full-fledged alternative.
It is known that in the product line has a moisturizing, cleansing foam, serum, cream and revitalizing mask. As the developers say, when applied to the skin of these people feel tingling. Organism at this point thinks that a person bitten by a bee. As a result, the place of an imaginary bite rushes blood, stimulates collagen and elastin.
According to Dr. Sun Mi Han, this therapy can also increase the number of keratinocytes - the cells that act as a protective barrier against external factors, such as bacteria, dehydration and sun damage. These cells are located in the upper part of the skin. Wrinkles appear when their number is reduced with age.
To get the bee venom, it has benn developed a special technology for its collection, not the alleged murder of insects - bees just make bite-glass collector. When the poison accumulates on the surface, it gets dried and cleaned. The purified form of poison is already used in cosmetology.
Nov 28, 2011
Soft Drinks and Teenagers
The list of health problems that may arise as a result of regular consumption of soft drinks grows like a house on fire. Traditionally, this category included obesity and a greater risk of developing diabetes. Only recently have scientists discovered that fizzy drink also has a negative impact on the memory of teenagers.
As a result of a new discovery it turned out that the more children consume such products, the more aggressive behavior they had. It was organized by the statistical study aimed at identifying behavioral problems in teens. Of the 1,800 students of different universities in Boston, randomly selected, about half of them regularly consumed different soft drinks. About 59% of their numbers in the school years has been convicted of violent acts by their peers as well as in relation to adults.
In the category of teenagers who did not consume such drinks, a similar percentage was only 32%. Scientists note that these results there is nothing surprising, especially given the fact that today is objectively proven connection between consumption of sugary drinks and depression - another very common behavioral problem. However, almost all of these problems are usually caused by the same reasons - namely the lack of a body of certain nutrients that a person receives through food and water. And as sweet carbonated drinks do not contain such substances at all, and thus able to satisfy thirst, the body is a deficiency of several important minerals and nutrients, and provokes a particular stress to the body and nervous system.
In particular, the regular consumption of soft drinks has the potential to provoke a state glipoglycemia or close to it. It is characterized by a decrease in blood glucose levels, and may also occur in people who are on a very strict diet. One of the main symptoms of this condition is precisely the increased aggression and irritability - ascertain scientists.
Nov 21, 2011
Watermelons Reduce The Risk Of Heart Disease
Regular consumption of watermelon is extremely effective in the prevention of the cardiovascular system, and particularly from heart attacks and strokes - it was proven recently by scientists from the University of Kentucky.
In addition, this berry helps people to be in shape - watermelon juice reduces the amount of fat on the body, adding a tonus throughout the body. Thus, scientists advise to include watermelon diet in athletes and people who are regularly subjected to severe physical stress.
But more importantly is that watermelon juice can reduce blood cholesterol levels and to clean the arteries from plaques, which scientists believe could potentially lead to blockage of blood vessels, which leads to heart attacks, strokes and many other diseases of the cardiovascular system. Positive impact on our health watermelon is primarily due to the presence in its composition of powerful antioxidant compounds Caratonoids, which significantly reduce the risk of atherosclerosis - the clogging of the arteries by cholesterol plaques, which is the most common cause of problems with the cardiovascular system. In this way, regular consumption of watermelon juice or watermelon can in the short term can significantly reduce blood pressure.
However, these beneficial properties of watermelon, apparently, do not end here. Like tomatoes, lycopene gives red colour to watermelons - this a special substance which, according to scientists, has a truly unique anti-cancer properties. To date, based on several studies it can be argued that regular consumption of foods containing lycopene, can reduce by almost one third the risk of developing colon cancer and prostate cancer. The scientists add that the use of watermelon has no side effects, no matter how much people use it. The optimal level of consumption is estimated to be three cups of watermelon juice per day, which is generally equivalent to 750 mg. of watermelon pulp.
However, scientists are convinced that many useful properties of the watermelon is not yet known, and new studies have yet to learn from what diseases this berry can save us.
Nov 14, 2011
Eating Raw Food Helps To Endure Pain
Pain is an inevitable attribute of our life, no matter how healthy is our lifestyle and diet. However, there are some foods that significantly reduce the pain, however, that if they are used in raw form.
Do not worry - raw meat, fish or some other similar food products you will not find in this list. But the banana is the best remedy for spasmodic pain. The thing is that the spasms and cramps are a symptom of potassium deficiency in the body - and the banana is the best product to cover this deficit.
But cinnamon is an indispensable tool in combating inflammation and accompanying pain, as well as the effects of uric acid accumulation which may become the cause of arthritis. Ginger and turmeric help to suppress the pain in our intestines, especially in the presence of ulcers or various disorders, as well as positive effects on the kidneys. But so common in the modern world, headache cures to horrible just - through the use of a handful of cherries. And it does not matter what was its cause.
In terms of common painkillers, which can affect any source of pain, where that was not traditionally celebrate the foods that are rich in vitamin C - strawberries, kiwi, oranges, guavas, lemons, and limes. Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant that neutralizes the effect of lactic acid, and has a general beneficial effect on the body, resulting in significant pain subsides.
Approximately the same effect have olives, which also contain a set of extremely powerful antioxidants. And the best dish, the overwhelming pain in the body are fresh fruit salad - no pre-impact, no conservation - all to be only the most recent. In this salad will contain all of the same substances that are used for pain medications, but they are presented here in its natural form, and therefore better absorbed.
Nov 7, 2011
Prevention Of Tumors
The British offered to carry out prevention of malignant tumors using popular and inexpensive drugs, informs New Scientist. Two independent research groups have confirmed the effectiveness of aspirin and tamoxifen for the prevention of colon cancer and breast cancer, respectively.
An international team of scientists led by Sir John Burn from Newcastle University for four and a half years were watching more than 860 carriers of genes for the development of hereditary form of colon cancer. Half of them have taken daily to 600 milligrams of aspirin, the rest received a placebo. According to the survey, a hereditary disease developed in 19 of the first group of volunteers, as well as a 34 - out of control.
In turn, Jack Cuzick and his colleagues at the London Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine studied women who had mammograms during the increase in density was detected breast tissue. Researchers found that within 10 years after the test women with a tumors over 75 percent of gland tissue had developed breast cancer four times often than the rest of women.
Cuzick noted that the use of antiestrogenic drug Tamoxifen reduces the density of hormone-dependent breast tissue. According to the scientist, the use of this means reduced risk of breast cancer in women by 63 percent. Similar results were obtained by a research group led by Paul Goss from Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, USA.
According to Cuzick, existing screening programs for breast cancer at an early stage with mammography should be combined with prophylactic antiestrogenic drugs.
Oct 31, 2011
The new study, which has already acquired the status of scandalous one, was conducted by a team of scientists from the UK. Statistical observation showed that the flu vaccine protects only 1.5 people out of 100, while the official version, the degree of protection from the infection after vaccination of all 60%. Thus, after grafting degree of protection should be calculated as the level of 60 from 100 people, which is more than 40 times higher than official statistics.
The study was conducted by comparing the two results obtained on the basis of statistical observations. In the first case, the control group consisted of 13 095 people - all of these people were not vaccinated against influenza. During three periods of seasonal epidemics of influenza viruses among them were infected only 395 people or 2.7%. In the second level of the control group, which included only people who have received vaccination against influenza vaccine in anticipation of the season got ill just 1.2%. Thus, it is easy to calculate that the difference between the two measures is 1.5%. That is, in fact we get the conclusion which has already been sounded above - the flu vaccine actually protects the body against the flu virus in only 1.5% of cases. Ultimately, it appears that out of 200 people who were vaccinating only 3 because it will avoid infection.
However, pharmaceutical companies are now more than a dozen years asserting that the level of effectiveness of influenza vaccines is at least 60%. The question is, where does that figure appear? In fact, after analyzing the official information, a group of scientists who conducted the new study has concluded that it was a publicity stunt and nothing more. In own research pharmacists simply divide 2.73% by 1.2% to yield about 0.43 - which is the ratio between the two control groups. As a result of subtracting this from the units, they are 0.57, and declare that the efficiency ratio, which is rounded and gives 60%. After all, everyone knew that if everyone knew that the shot only three out of two hundred actually be able to avoid the virus - then nobody would get vaccinated.
Oct 24, 2011
Organs Transplantation From Animals
It is very likely that soon the pigs can successfully 'migrate' from our kitchen table on the surgical one - leading scientists around the world are still struggling upon this issue. In the UK today on the waiting list for donor organs are 8 000 people. Three of them are dying every day.
In less developed countries the situation is much worse. For a long time, all the experiments with transplantation of animal tissue to the man ended in complete failure, because in most cases the rejection occurred. The human immune system begins to attack transplanted organs, perceiving them as a threat, as a result they should be removed to avoid complications.
However, scientists believe that the recent medicine is slowly but surely beginning to make headway in solving the problems concerning tissue rejection. Already now at an experimental level were quite successfully carried out transplants to men from pigs the human heart valve, which controls the flow of blood to the heart. To achieve this was possible through the use of recent advances of genetic engineering. The fact is that our immune cells attack not the the transplanted tissue itself, but protein contained in it - galactosyltransferase. To avoid it genetics helped scientists - they changed the gene function and removed from it the production of this protein. This is essentially the first step towards the implementation of long-standing dream of physicians - to be able to transplant animal tissues to people. However, its importance should not be overestimated. The probability of rejection still exists, but now scientists say that "it is possible to clearly establish the remaining factors that contribute to this phenomenon."
Of course, after determining them scientists have a high probability to get rid of. Now is possible to transplant a small amount of tissue, which still allows to achieve positive results in the treatment of diabetes of the first type, several heart problems and other diseases. In the future, scientists can not rule out the possibility that almost every organ can be transplanted from the animal - even brain cells. This in particular will help to successfully fight diseases such as Parkinson's disease.
Oct 17, 2011
Miscarriage: Risk Factors
According to statistics in the modern world, one in four pregnancies end in miscarriage. This phenomenon is usually difficult to relate only to bad habits or specific aspects of the mother's life, but researchers are convinced - there are certain risk factors, and if desired they can be manipulated, if not all, the most of them.
Although a consensus on this issue in the medical community by and large has not yet emerged, but most experts believe - the most common cause of early miscarriages (in the first 13 weeks of gestation) is associated with genetic abnormalities of the embryo or fetus. It is hard to assess where do they come from - most are likely to be inherited. True, this is only conjecture that the statistics did not back up, because even if your ancestors did not encounter a similar phenomenon - not the fact that you do not run with it.
However, genetic anomalies risk factors for miscarriage are not limited to - in particular, young mothers should be afraid of the following:
• Abnormal hormone levels - meets periodically, and affects the body's ability to adequately control the processes of pregnancy; • Problems with the cervix - if it opens too early, it can cause miscarriage later; • Problems with the uterus - an unusual form of uterine fibroids or, if they limit the space for the development of the fetus; • Violation of blood clotting - blood supply affects the fetus, as in the early and late stages of pregnancy; • Infections - blood poisoning and food poisoning, such as, for example, listeriosis (very rarely) can also provoke miscarriage; • Ectopic pregnancy - the fetus begins to develop outside the uterus, usually in a fallopian tube. Symptoms include pain, fatigue and possibly bleeding.
Other risk factors for miscarriage (such as an empty gestational sac or a molar pregnancy) are extremely rare. Availability of each of the above problems can be diagnosed in time, and thus prevent undesirable consequences. In general, according to scientists, the risk of miscarriage increases with age of one of the partners, or in case of fertility problems in women, overweight, or if one partner consumes alcohol or regularly smokes. Physical activity during pregnancy are not relevant - a restricted diet is contraindicated as well - nutrition should be comprehensive and balanced.
Oct 11, 2011
Green Tea Slows The Weight Gain
Green tea contains much healthier ingredients, including antioxidants. A recent study showed that, among other things, green tea can slow weight gain.
Most types of green tea contains epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) - a substance that scientists are interested in and from Pennsylvania. To test its effect on obesity, the researchers divided the mice into two groups: both groups received food rich in fat, while one group was added to the food EGCG, the other - no.
It was found that mice from the first group gained weight to 45% more slowly than mice of the second group. Additional tests confirmed that the animals that received EGCG is absorbed less fat from food.
"It could be two things - says Joshua Lambert, associate professor in the sphere of food science. - First, EGCG reduces the absorption of fat, and secondly - it enhances the ability to use fat." At the same time, EGCG does not affect the appetite of the subjects.
To obtain such a number of EGCG, which we gave the mice in the experiment, a person should drink 10 cups of green tea a day, says Lambert, but even a few cups, he said, already can be beneficial.
Oct 3, 2011
Forty years ago, tobacco companies knew of the radioactive particles in tobacco smoke.
Investigation published by the University of California study shows that the major tobacco companies knew of the radioactive and carcinogenic components of cigarettes long before these data were presented.
According to documents the owners of the tobacco companies knew of the radioactive properties of tobacco smoke since at least 1959. Tobacco manufacturers are not only long been aware of the consequences of this cancer, "supplements", but even have the appropriate investigations.
Tobacco smoke contains alpha particles, the influence of which on the development of cancer has been proved in 1920. In those years, fluorescent dye, which included the same alpha-particles that are present in tobacco smoke, was used for application to clock surfaces. Very quickly, this led to a high incidence of cancer among workers watch factories. However, tobacco companies have begun to take measures to reduce radioactivity in cigarette smoke only since 1980.
Sep 26, 2011
Cholesterol and Cancer Cells
Study by researchers at Ohio State University showed that some cancers (for example, breast and prostate) are dependent on hormones, but tumors in the brain are fed by LDL cholesterol (often called 'bad cholesterol'). RBC with reference to the Telegraph reports that the discovery by American scientists to help in the development of drugs capable of stopping tumor growth.
In a study published in the journal Cancer Discovery, the authors write that up to 90% of glioblastomas (the most common and aggressive form of brain tumor) are so-called hyperactive signaling pathway for cholesterol. This means that their cells are programmed on the uptake of LDL cholesterol, which causes them to grow. "Our work shows that the growth of tumor cells and their survival depends on huge amounts of cholesterol, and we believe that by depriving cells of cholesterol by pharmacological we will develop a new strategy for the treatment of glioblastoma," - said the study's author of the Universal Centre of cancer therapy (Comprehensive Cancer Center) at the University of Dividing Guo. In turn, his colleague added: "This mechanism allows to destroy tumor cells without significant toxicity." Assumptions were confirmed by specialists in laboratory studies on the example of human cells and brain cancer in animal experiments.
It should be noted that multiforme glioblastoma constitue up to 52% of primary brain tumors and up to 20% of all intracranial tumors. Annually, it affects the 5000 Brits, 3600 of them die. Currently, the treatment method used chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery. However, even complete surgical removal of the tumor and the further use of drugs does not provide a significant increase in patient life expectancy, which is 8-10 months after diagnosis.
Sep 19, 2011
HIV VS Cancer
Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania decided to use a deadly disease against another. To do this, they genetically altered HIV, in order to reprogram the immune system of cancer patients and make it attack the cancer cells, says Discovery News.
Preliminary testing showed: this approach helped to kill cancer in the body of two patients and weaken in the third. All of them were initially diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. According to experts, the technology can be adapted to treat other cancers, especially those that are difficult to treat, such as pancreatic, ovarian, and mesothelioma.
Thus, the essence of the approach is as follows: first the doctors evict person's blood through a special machine to remove T cells, but returning the blood to the body. These cells are infected with HIV changed form. They are introduced the genes that cause the recognition and attack specific cancer type, the set and living in the body for months.
Already modified T cells carry a so-called chimeric antigen receptors - proteins that enable them to recognize and kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy, in turn, kills the patient any remaining T cells, in order to not disturb the new one - modified - to get distributed.
In an interview with The New York Times the study participant Carl Jung said that it makes the human organism a kind of bioreactor. In the following weeks after treatment, the patient may experience the increase the temperature, chills, fever, low blood pressure and other symptoms of the flu. They are caused by compounds of cytokines that are generated by T-cells. These are signs of cancer suppression.
Sep 12, 2011
Stomach Cancer Is Caused By Bacteria
Helicobacter pylori - a bacterium that seems to be fairly well studied by modern medicine. Medicine has discovered it in 1983 and since then scientists have already managed to establish its ability to cause stomach ulcer and duodenal ulcer. However, a recent University of Zurich was made an unexpected discovery - it turns out, getting on the wall of the gastric mucosa, Helicobacter pylori breaks the DNA structure of cells, and thereby, it "prepares" them to malignant transformation.
Cancer of the gastrointestinal tract by the World Health Organization statistics is the third most common cancer disease in the world with a high level of fatalities. The new discovery as a promise, researchers can make some adjustments in these statistics. Scientists, among other things have established that Helicobacter pylori getting into the body, causing damage only after a certain period of time, and, the longer will be this time, the more disastrous are the consequences.
However, when using antibiotics to kill harmful bacteria within a few hours after ingestion, the result is likely to be reversible. "This study is extremely important for the global oncology practice, and although we can not determine the possibility of direct application of knowledge obtained by us, in the future, we can say that the development of anti-Helicobacter pylori will allow us to seriously change the statistics of cancer gastrointestinal tract "- says Professor Anne Müller from the University of Zurich.
Sep 5, 2011
Folic Acid During Pregnancy
The importance of maintaining a high level of consumption of folic acid by the body during pregnancy have been studied and scientifically proven in several studies. In particular, it was concluded that folic acid (vitamin B9) is having a very beneficial effect on intelligence and physical health of the child throughout his later life. However, the benefits of its use, apparently, has not been studied fully, and a recent study a group of scientists from the University of Toronto is an example.
It was found that children whose mothers took during pregnancy, vitamin B9, the risk of colon cancer is reduced by 64%. Folic acid is found in green vegetables, lentils and beans, and in this form it is better to use, but a great alternative and will serve as special agents on its basis - the researchers note. Vitamin B9 is traditionally considered to be indispensable for the formation and development of healthy blood and immune systems in a child at an early stage of development.
"As a result of clinical tests, we found that folic acid prevents disturbance of DNA and inhibits cell proliferation in the colon, in other words, the complex protecting the child's body while he is in the womb. "- Said Dr. Young-in Kim from St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto, one of the authors of the study. In general, these findings are completely consistent with the results of previous studies conducted.
For example, in 2010 in an article published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, cited the facts according to which the use of folic acid during pregnancy significantly improves brain function and motor function in the child during its subsequent development. And in 2006 it was discovered that besides acting on DNA, folic acid is a highly effective means of prevention, and in some cases even cancer have absolutely all categories of patients regardless of age.
Sep 1, 2011
Dairy Products Can Help In Depression
Yogurt-probiotic is designed to improve digestion. However, according to recent surveys, dairy products help in the treatment of depression, says Live Science.
It was found that intestinal bacteria directly affect the brain. This is demonstrated by the experiments with rodents. According to scientists, the same happens in humans. It should be said that earlier bowel disorders have been associated with related stress mental health problems. That is what prompted the researchers to further explore the issue.
Working with laboratory mice, the scientists fed them soup containing the bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus JB-1, which live in the digestive tract. As a result, these mice showed fewer signs of stress, anxiety and depression, and their body was fixed lower concentration of the stress hormone corticosterone, even though they were placed in stressful situations.
Says neuroscientist at University College Cork in Ireland, John ICA: "Generally, in the future yoghurts can replace the tablets, but the effectiveness will depend on the strain of bacteria." These considerations he shared in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Aug 29, 2011
Botox For Urinary Incontinence Treatment
American supervisors approved teh use of "Botox" as a means of urinary incontinence treatment. The decision was taken by the Office of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
The use of this product on the basis of botulinum toxin is recommended for the treatment of urination disorders associated with neurological diseases and injuries. In particular, patients with multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injuries often suffer from urinary incontinence.
To inject botulinum toxin is considered to enter directly into the bladder during the procedure of cystoscopy. Under the influence of drugs the body walls got relaxed and thus are terminated the involuntary contractions. The therapeutic effect of a single injection lasts for about nine months.
The effectiveness of a new treatment has been confirmed in clinical trials involving nearly 700 patients. The frequency of involuntary incontinence between the participants who were entered the botulinum toxin significantly decreased as compared with a control group of volunteers.
"Botox", produced by American company Allergan, is a purified toxin of bacteria Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism. When injected into the muscle the substance causes their paralysis. In this regard, "Botox" is currently the most widely used in cosmetic medicine as a means for smoothing facial wrinkles. In addition, the United States authorized to use the drug for chronic migraines, muscle spasms, strabismus and excessive sweating.
Aug 22, 2011
The Journal Abnormal Psychology Scientists publisged a report proving that it is necessary to introduce a gender perspective while prescribing medicines. Researchers from the University of Minnesota found that the difference between men and women is evident when it comes to mental disorders, writes The Times of India.
Thus, women are more likely to be diagnosed with anxiety or depression, and men - anti-social behavior and the problems associated with addiction. In total, during the study questions the experts have analyzed the gender factor for several types of common mental disorders. By the way, women who suffer from anxiety, are more likely to hold onto the emotions, which threatens to loneliness, depression and alienation. On the other hand, men, by contrast, often shifted their emotions outwardly. Hence, there appeared the feeling of aggressiveness, impulsivity, inappropriate behavior.
The researchers demonstrated that it is a tendency to hold in themselves, or do not hold the emotions affect the gender statistics for many diseases. Total research director Nicholas R. Eaton and his colleagues analyzed data from 43,093 U.S. residents, collected in 2001-2002 by the National Institute of Health Research. Scholars were interested in the history of disease over a lifetime compared to the previous 12 months.
The experts concluded that doing treatment for women, it is necessary to focus on cognitive abilities and skills to carry hardships, to prevent the development of clinical depression or anxiety. In men, the same is put into practice therapy, based on a pay for performance prior deliberate action or aggressive impulses transfered into positive ones.
Aug 15, 2011
If to reduce the consumption of cooking salt, this will save millions from death due to stroke or cardiovascular disease, say British scientists from Warwick Medical School.
If you reduce salt consumption by only 3 grams, then this may prevent 8000 stroke deaths and 12 000 deaths from cardiovascular disease in Britain, says head of research Professor Francesco Kapuchio. In the U.S. this figure will be 120 000 deaths prevention of cardiovascular disease, 66 000 deaths from stroke each year. The health care system could save $ 24 billion.
The World Health Organization calls to reduce salt intake to less than 5 g in 2025. At the moment, people are eating too much salt, especially in Russia, where are popular salty foods.
The study was published this week in the British Medical Journal.
Jul 20, 2011
Chocolates As A Remedy For PMS
In the near future, women will be able to deal with PMS in an unusual way. Chocolates will aid in this, writes The Daily Mail. It is about truffles CocoPMS, containing anti-inflammatory compounds because of the blueberries and chaste tree. As a result, the consumption of sweets alleviate the pain.
Development of candy belongs to the American company Xan Confections. The price of these varies from 7.5 pounds to 30 pounds. Sweets can also be ordered online at the company's website.
The Company expects that its sweet will quickly become popular, in fact, according to statistics, every third woman suffers from PMS, which is felt two weeks before the menstruation. All because of jumps in the levels of progesterone. The severity of symptoms vary in each case. In addition CocoPMS, the company has a candy CocoHeart, useful for the heart, and CocoPreggers with folic acid and fatty acid omega-3 for expectant mothers. Some experts fear that the emergence of "good candy" in the market will become just an excuse for sweets.
Jul 11, 2011
Chemical Component For A New Painkillers Gen
According to BBC, the basis of investigation constituted the study of the effect of ultraviolet rays on human skin. Researchers from King's College London conducted an experiment on 10 volunteers. They subjected a small area of skin of these people to ultraviolet rays of the B spectrum influencing the skin's top layer and being the main cause of sunburn.
The researchers then took samples of damaged skin burns and examined for the presence of hundreds of molecules known to science associated with pain. As a result, they found that the samples present an unusually high level of molecules CXCL5.
Thus, for the first time a connection was established just for this molecule with pain due to ultraviolet radiation, said study leader Professor Steve McMahon from the Center for the Study of age-related diseases Wolfson.
Scientists hope that one day it will allow the discovery to develop drugs that help people with inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and cystitis and suffering from chronic pain.
Jul 4, 2011
The Web Service Google Health
Google will close the web service Google Health, designed for storing personal health information and to share such information with other users. This was reported in the official blog of Google.
The reason for the closure, as indicated by Google, is low popularity of the project. Google Health was designed for a wide audience, but in reality they enjoyed only a small group of technologically "advanced" patients of clinics and enthusiasts of a healthy lifestyle.
Service will be closed on January 1, 2012, but to keep personal information on Google Health servers users will be able to 1 January 2013.
Google Health was launched in May 2008. In one's "private office" users of the service could store personal medical information - for example, hospital records, information about medications taken, test results, the data on pressure and body temperature and so on. If desired, this information might be shared with other users.
Google also announced that due to low popularity will be closed another profile web service as well - Google PowerMeter. The project was started in 2009. Its task was to help users save money on electricity costs.
Jun 27, 2011
New Invention Of American Students
In June this year a group of graduate students from Johns Hopkins University reported development of a device to extract blood from the umbilical cord and placenta. James Waring Elias Bitar, Chris Chan, Matthew and Sean Means Monagl, who developed the installation, received the preliminary patents and have already formed a company TheraCord LLC to further develop this technology.
The new device, called «CBx System», can increase blood donations, and as a result obtain 50% more stem cells than the traditional method. Details are not set up the system, but noted that the device uses either mechanical effect, or a chemical solution.
"Our next step - said Chris Chan - is the optimization of the system, which will be possible to obtain an even greater number of stem cells. On the basis of previous experiments using the new methods, we believe that it is possible to get volume two to 5 times greater than existing methods".
The reason that a group of students interested in obtaining a larger number of stem cells is simple: in the U.S. use of cord blood stem cells already exceeds the number of transplants using bone marrow. Thus, patients who do not have stocks of stem cells in private bank to apply to state donor banks in hopes of finding a compatible donor material. However, with public donor banks operate only 180 maternity homes, which for the collection of umbilical cord blood cover about 10% of total births in the country and can not provide large amounts of donor stem cells. Today, when humanity realized the advantages of cell therapy and the benefits they receive from umbilical cord blood, such losses can not be justified.
Jun 14, 2011
Israeli Microneedles To Protect Against Flu
Israeli company NanoPass specializes in the development of miniature needles and devices for the painless injection of drugs.
An Israeli company has developed NanoPass micro-needles for vaccination against swine flu. The advantage of the full painless needle injections, as well as the ability to defend 3 times more people from the potentially deadly flu. Currently, the company developed a micro-needle for vaccination against swine influenza. Micro-needle like sting of a mosquito, penetrates into the skin using a slip. Studies show that using a microneedle one dose of vaccine needed for protection against influenza can be "stretched" into three doses, thereby increasing up to three times the number of vaccinated people. It is very important because Ministry of Health, the U.S. fears that the currently available stocks of drugs Tamiflu and Relenza may not have enough people, because in winter it is expected a large outbreak of influenza.
In randomized clinical trials manufacturer company NanoPass showed that by using microneedle technology, it can be reduced by 80% of the dose of the vaccine without compromising the immune response. These impressive results are attributed to the active response of powerful immune cells located in the skin. Moreover, the same effective immune response is expected after vaccination of any type of flu.
Company NanoPass, using technology intradermal delivery of drugs at the same time exploring the possibilities of this approach in other diseases such as diabetes. It is known that diabetics who receive insulin injections permanently, get used to the injections, but for people who are afraid of injections, and for children each injection of insulin is a nightmare. New microneedles are very subtle, so can help solve this problem.
Jun 6, 2011
Breakfasts High In Protein Increases Satiety
Breakfasts high in protein increases satiety and dulls the hunger during the day, say nutritionists at the University of Missouri, USA. Protein breakfast reduces the activity of the brain signals that control the motivation to consume food and a sense of reward when eaten delicious meals, thus allowing monitoring of eating behavior.
Breakfast of protein products may be the best way to regulate appetite and prevent overeating throughout the day, experts say.
According to Dr. Heather Leidy, all know the importance of a hearty breakfast for normal body function, but not all adhere to the principle to start the morning with a "normal eating". In a scientific experiment, clinicians reviewed the feeling of appetite, and hormonal markers in conjunction with the work of brain signals control motivation. It was noted that people who do not eat breakfast often have unhealthy habits of eating behavior, such as snack during the day chips and other "hazards", overeat, especially at night, and usually are overweight and often obese. Volunteers who, within three weeks received a 500-calorie breakfast containing grains and dairy products, which contain a normal amount of protein, often talked about how they were fed throughout the day and less likely to have experienced hunger. Neural signals in the brain, indicating the motivation for food consumption, were also reduced.
May 30, 2011
Extract of the fungus widely used in Asian cooking, may stop the growth of prostate cancer, say researchers from Australia. A compound called polysaccharide peptide (PSP), extracted from Turkish "caudate" fungus (tramety colored), as the researchers found, kills prostate cancer cells and prevents the formation of malignant tumors. These data gave the first experiments conducted on mice.
According to the scientist Patrick Ling, conventional treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy is aimed at the destruction of certain cancer cells, but not on stem cells. However, that stem cells "trigger mechanism" for cancer and cause progression of the disease, said Dr. Ling from the Australian Research Centre for prostate cancer, which is located in Queensland.
"It is believed that stem cell cancer is one of the main reasons why some medications are not working," - he adds. "If you find this kind of treatment, which will focus on cancer stem cells, then it generally must be effective. We have found that an extract from tramety is very effective in terms of the impact of cancer stem cells."
In a series of experiments, involving nearly 20 mice carrying the gene for prostate cancer, scientists in the 20 weeks were fed half of them PSP, and the second part of the mice, this drug is not allowed. In all experimental animals that ate the extract, the cancer does not develop in the control group showed the development of this disease. "Our findings confirm that the PSP can be a powerful prophylactic against prostate cancer", said Dr. Ling.
Mushroom trameta is used since olden times in Asian cooking for soups, health-promoting, however, according to Dr. Ling is still no research conducted to suggest that a simple meal of this fungus may have the same effect as using a hood.
May 23, 2011
Grape Is Good For The Heart
Grapes have a variety of protective properties, that can protect the heart from diseases. Doctors have proved that daily consumption of grapes lowers blood pressure, improves heart function and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disorders.
Potential of grapes is the high content of phytochemicals - natural healthy antioxidants. In the experiments, laboratory rats is mixed into the regular diet of a portion of crushed dried grapes. Animals were given special foods with excess salt, to determine whether grapes can prevent the harmful effect of sodium. After 18 weeks, the rodents had lowered blood pressure, better heart function and blood circulation, fewer signs of heart muscle damage and reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress on the organ.
Doctors suggest that the grapes have a direct positive effect on cardiovascular function due to either flavonoids - antioxidants by direct exposure or through indirect action on the function of heart cells.
Flavonoids are found in grape peel, pulp, and seeds. In a natural way the chemicals in grapes reduce potentially dangerous molecular and cellular activity in the heart. However, cardiologists warne - the results of this study do not have to be interpreted correctly: patients with heart problems should not give up medicines and switch just to the grape. Nevertheless, tasty berry can be a good preventive measure against heart disease.
May 16, 2011
New Methods Of Breast Reconstruction
Reconstructive plastic surgery has now become a major focus of the Department of General Oncology, Samara Oncology Center. The indications for each type of reconstructive surgery are already worked out, which take into account individual characteristics of the patient, plan of cancer treatment and its personal preference.
The department introduced a method of breast reconstruction by moving its own tissues of anterior abdominal wall and shoulder area. Excellent results were obtained in the recovery of breast cancer by implementing artificial implants. Such operations are carried out either simultaneously with the implementation of tumor removal, and separately, after one or two years after completion of treatment.
Doctors are trying to constantly improve the methods of reconstructive procedures, they are actively involved in numerous oncology scientific conferences in Russia, Germany, Italy and other countries. Residents of department specialize in the workplace in the Department of Reconstructive Plastic Surgery European Institute of Oncology (Milan, Italy).
Not so long ago the only option for patients with breast cancer was to remove the entire breast with all the neighboring tissues. However, scientific discoveries over the past 20 years have changed the attitudes of oncologists on this problem. Moreover, there are new safe for the patient's surgery and subsequent treatment methods. These methods not only provide relief from the disease, but also restore the shape of the breast.
May 12, 2011
Silicone Injections and Health
More and more patients with complications from silicone injections in the last year, come for a visit to American doctors. A woman in America decided to make the procedure of silicone injections, that were made by the cosmetician. The next day after the procedure 43-year-old woman died from a silicone embolism.
Representatives of the Ministry of Health believe that this case can not be isolated, since they themselves beauticians not reported to the authorities about health problems of their patients because of the ban on such operations, and the silicone is not detected by X-ray or CT scan, only biopsy helps in this case.
Despite the danger of such a procedure, the demand for silicone injections is not reduced: it is much cheaper than Botox or collagen injections. The International Herald Tribune reports that the silicone can be used in cosmetic and plastic surgery only in very rare cases, such as implants. Any introduction of liquid silicone into the body can be life-threatening. When injected into the vein, silicone enters the blood, which inevitably leads to death. In addition, subcutaneous injection of silicone can cause allergic reactions, and immune system disorders and mutilate the body and the face of the patient.
Following the information on deaths from silicone injections Food and Drug Administration began investigating the case. Inspectors began studying the black market silicone cosmetics and concluded that the most often to such a "cheap" procedure resort the Hispanic women and transvestites, who do not have enough money to afford expensive and safe procedures of the professionals. Typically, these injections are done at home, in hotel rooms or at "silicone party" in which the participants injected one another dangerous drug.
Doctors think they can avoid the unfortunate consequences if to make information campaigns among the public, talking about the fact that silicone injection is bought at online markets, but sometimes the scammers replace it with a cheaper substance - the castor and mineral oils, petroleum jelly and even transmission fluid for cars.
May 3, 2011
British Scientists Managed To Grow Teeth
A group of researchers headed by Professor Paul Sharpe, has developed a new technology for growing teeth. To this end, researchers have used stem cells, which were taken from the patient. Further, these cells were grown in laboratory conditions that guarantee their transformation into the desired form of the tooth, after which the cells are transplanted to the gum at a remote location. After several months a new one tooth grows on the place of a missing one. The entire operation takes place under local anesthesia.
This technique was tested on mice, but Paul Sharp sees no reason that could prevent grow teeth in humans. If the effectiveness of the technology will be approved in clinical trials, then people will no longer need to wear artificial crowns and undergo complex operations to implant metal pins in the jawbone.
A similar invention was made in August by researchers from Tokyo University of Science (Japan). They have successfully implanted bioengineered tissue in the jaws of mice from which the rodents had new teeth grown. This technique can be used to restore a variety of organs.
Apr 14, 2011
Causes Of Migraine
Migraine - this is the most common neurological disease in the world. Approximately 12-15% of the world's population suffers from this disease. In women, migraine is 2-3 times more often than men. The term "migraine" was proposed by the great Hippocrates in the V century BC (although, in ancient Greek, it looked a bit different - hemikrania - half of the skull). Subsequently, the French started to pronounce this word as a migraine, but its meaning remained the same: for most typical attack of migraine pain covers only half of the head. Migraine is often called the disease of great people. Suffered from migraine: Julius Caesar, Calvin, Linnaeus, Beethoven, Pascal, Marx, Heine, Nobel, Poe, Maupassant, Darwin, Wagner, Chopin, Tchaikovsky, Nietzsche, Freud. Previously, when the cause of headache has not been sufficiently studied, migraine called all recurrent headaches on one side of the head.
Migraines can never lead to death, sooner or later, but at 40 - 60 years it disappeares completely. The only thing that will overshadow the patient for 30 or 50 years, it's painful bouts of headaches - migraine attacks.
Migraine is one of the most challenging medical problems, because there are too many different reasons that can cause the same result - a headache.
Heredity can be traced in the development of migraine: if both parents suffer from migraine their children are the risk in 60 to 90% cases, only mother - 72%, the father - 20%. In most people the disease begins in childhood or adolescence. The largest number of patients in the age group 35-45 years. The intensity and frequency of migraine attacks usually decreases with age (especially after 60 years) and in menopausal women. In persons older than 40 years of migraine begins very rare (about 5% of cases). Often the cause of headaches can be a viral infection. Some women have a headache occurs in periods coinciding with the beginning of the menstrual cycle. Headaches may occur due to increased pressure or allergic reaction in the sinuses of the head, the so-called sine headache.
A similar condition can cause stress. Sometimes a headache may signal a dangerous condition of blood vessels (aneurysm or blockage), or the beginning of a brain tumor.
Children's migraines may appear as a result of surge, such as watching television for long time or excessive passion for computers.
Apr 13, 2011
There are many different causes of headaches. Headache can occur because of changes occurring in the brain, its membranes, blood vessels of the head, skull, its soft cover, as well as a variety of diseases that occur in other organs and systems. Headache may be a symptom of what that change in the human body.
Headache may be a manifestation of at least forty-five different diseases, failures and deviations in the body. If doctors find no pathology, the reason lies in the functional disorders, i.e. changes in normal operation of organs and systems. As a rule, they are caused by the displacement of elements of the bone system (usually due to injury) or internal organs (due to spasms of muscles and ligaments that these bodies are attached to the skeleton and are interconnected). Since the nerve endings that perceive pain are not uniformly distributed in the brain, the headache can be caused by several factors:
* Mechanical (direct impact of external factors or pathological focus with tension, displacement, compression, extension of intracranial structures) * Thermal (high temperature, direct hypothermia or overheating of the head), * Chemical (effects of endogenous and exogenous chemicals that reduce pain threshold, such as uremia, food poisoning and alcohol intoxication).
The largest part of the nerve endings in the soft tissues of the head (skin, muscle, etc.), the walls of the superficial cerebral arteries (eg occipital, frontal, temporal and superficial). The most sensitive area is the hard brain tunic. At the base of the brain vessels, as well as large branches of the artery are large part of the pain receptor zone inside the skull.
Apr 12, 2011
For gastritis with reduced function of secretion (with low or normal acidity) it is recommended a diet of soups (cereals and vegetables) at various low-fat broth, lean meats (even fried, but without a solid crust), lean fish, all fresh and not too sour milk products, stale bread of different varieties, bread, vegetables and fruits - both cooked and raw, milk, eggs - raw and omelets, a variety of well-cooked cereal, fruit and vegetable juices, butter, tea, coffee, cocoa - with the water, sugar. Meals - at least 5 times a day, best of all - in the form of puree.
For gastritis with increased secretion of gastric function it is recommended the diet, which would neutralize the excessive release of hydrochloric acid. It is not recommended to eat fried food. Can be consumed milk, yogurt, yogurt, mild cheese, sour and fresh cheese, cream, cheese, yogurt, eggs, cook or steam, or boil, lean fish and meat to boil. Vegetables and herbs to use a well-boiled or mashed, raw can be consumed only lettuce, onion, dill. Eat dry bread or crackers, not butter biscuits. From meat products - dietary sausage, lean bacon and ham. Also are allowed smoked, but lean fish. Soups in case of gastritis with high acidity are cooked on any low-fat broth (no cubes!) with vegetables or cereals. Thin or finely chopped noodles are allowed to use. Cereals - from all sorts of large, well-cooked. From fat may use butter, ghee and vegetable oils (sunflower, olive). Sauces should not be used except for those cooked on the meat or fish broth. You can drink tea, cocoa and coffee.
It is prohibited to A>nsume: alcohol - in full, or full-flavored fresh-baked pastries, bread, hard cheeses, rye bread, legumes (peas, beans, lentils), thick noodles, fried eggs, fatty meats and / or fish, canned food, spices, fried potatoes and fried potatoes, cabbage, turnips, radishes, onions, fruit with peel, especially grapes, bacon, oily cream, candy, chocolate, all acute.
It also required sticking to a diet of 5 meals per day in small portions.
Apr 11, 2011
Three independent teams of doctors warn about the human organ transplantation, during which it was managed to avoid rejection of donor tissue with almost no use of drugs that suppress the immune system. This succeeded due to technology of "training" the immune system, but as it turned out - do not know yet, and the authors of innovation. To these 3 studies related to the rejection of donor organs, are devoted the articles published in open access in the journal The New England Journal of Medicine. And although it is a positive experience obtained in only a few patients, researchers hope that new development will help thousands of people around the world to escape from a long and severe course of treatment immediately following an organ transplant. The main problem after any transplant is the rejection of a transplanted organ recipient's immune system. To avoid this are used immuno-suppressive drugs, the need for the introduction of which is preserved in all patients till the end of life. Even those who were transplanted organs from the closest relatives. However, the use of immuno-suppressive drugs often leads to death of the patient from any other disease, such as pneumonia. Previous work of other scientists have shown that mice and monkeys can live without expensive treatment, if they enter into blood stem cells of blood donor organ. Bone marrow stem cells form white blood cells (leukocytes), including B-cells and T-cells. T-cells form the body's immune response (they are able to recognize alien target), while B-cells produce antibodies. Rejection of transplanted organs and tissues occurs due to the fact that the immune system founds a "stranger" and begins to attack the donor organ and, eventually, breaks its job. Biologists have discovered that in the case of transplant patient pluripotent stem cell donor, resulting from these T-lymphocytes and B-cells are embedded in the immune system of the recipient and the transplanted organ by the body begins to be perceived as "part of one own's." Recent studies have been conducted on a similar principle.
Apr 8, 2011
Lovers Of Good Food Do Not Get Fat
It is possible to predict how many overweight people pick up for the year due to the genes. As shown by scientists, the obesity is the destiny of those who are unable to enjoy food. Quality determines the number of dopamine receptors to form D2, which is responsible for gene Taq1. People who know how to get more fun if you do not live longer, then certainly "more" - in terms of number of vivid impressions. And if the ways in which this number is reached, do not run counter to "teaching about healthy living," then we can expect a real life extension. This approach has been linked to one of the greatest challenges of modern humanity - adiposity. As shown by Eric Stice and his colleagues at the University of Texas, a weakening in the brain reward system is fraught with obesity. People who get less satisfaction from food, get fat faster. Probably, a lot of products they compensate less for them - its quality. Moreover, to find out to what extent the reward system is weakened, you do not even get into the brain. It suffices to take any cell of the body, separated from her DNA and see how the gene variant Taq1 has her master. This gene encodes a receptor to form dopamine D2, and that their lack of communication scholars link the pleasure of eating and obesity. According to modern concepts, our brain is designed in such a way that most enjoyable activities are reflected in the "promotion system" - a complex interacting structures, "communicate" with each other mainly by the neurotransmitter dopamine. For example, food intake, the majority of drugs, alcohol, moral or sexual satisfaction associated with increased formation of dopamine. Until recently, dopamine was the only "mediator of joy", while significantly related to release of the activation of certain brain areas could not. However, thanks to functional magnetic resonance imaging, detecting changes in blood flow and allowing on-screen imager to observe activation of the central nervous system, was identified itself "reward system", a key role is played by the dorsal (posterior) part of the striatum. As the main stimulus in the experiment Stice has chosen ordinary chocolate shake. The publication in Science, scientists did not specify what was initially - to recruit volunteers or choose a cocktail, but the two matched groups of students 18-22 years old schoolgirls and 14-18 is the best fit to the experimental scheme. Men milkshakes lure did not, although the obesity problem for them is no less acute. Those girls who got less pleasure from the cocktail (according to an objective imaging), for the following year got more pounds.
Apr 7, 2011
American scientists have come to a paradoxial conclusion: children whose parents are not obsessed with hygiene and sanitation, do not suffer from allergies. Allergy has long been a scourge of the developed countries. Despite all the measures taken to combat it, the number of allergy sufferers in the world is constantly increasing. So, according to the Organization by patients allergic UK, some form of allergy suffers every third inhabitant of the country over the last decade the number of allergy sufferers it has tripled. The reasons for this phenomenon are still unclear. One of the most popular hypothesis, hygienic, says that the growing number of allergic diseases in developed countries is caused by frequent hygiene procedures. However, no evidence was still given. The first 'robin' was a study conducted by the National Center for Environmental Health in Munich. German scientists have noticed a surprising fact: children who are born with contact with domestic dogs are much less likely to suffer from allergies. What is the likelihood of their allergy reduced by 50%, confirmed the observation of three thousand children from birth until they reach the age of 6. Scientists have suggested that this is due to early contact of child's immune system with a variety of allergens that enter the house on their paws and pet hair. In the spring of 2010, the contribution to the study of allergy was made by U.S. researchers from the Institute of Medicine, University of California at San Diego (USA). They concluded that the widespread negative staphylococci can block inflammation, preventing the body to react very strongly to stimuli. This is achieved by the fact that these bacteria produce molecules of lipoteichoic acid, which acts on the main skin cells - keratinocytes, controlling their behavior and preventing an excessive immune response. Thus, contact with bacteria in early childhood prevents from allergies of different kinds in the future. "Our main achievement is that we were able to provide a molecular explanation of the hygiene hypothesis and discovered previously unknown elements of wound healing. Now we can assume an established fact that bacteria living in the epithelium, can help prevent inflammation in trauma. They reduce the overactive immune response to cuts and scratches, because of which the skin becomes swollen. This may be possible to develop new approaches to treatment of diseases associated with skin inflammation. So far this has not happened, I can advise the following: stop washing children every day. Too clean skin is less able to regeneration, in addition, it provokes the allergy ", - said the lead researcher, Professor Richard Gell.
Apr 6, 2011
A Genetic Cure For AIDS
American pharmacists have created and tested a genetic cure for HIV: the virus is not dead, but ceased to multiply. Russian virologists believe that this method will help to completely get rid of AIDS. Charles Preston Neef and his colleagues at the University of Colorado synthesized siRNA, which block the expression of genes responsible for viral replication. Then they created a hybrid of "contraceptive" siRNA and aptamers to the viral protein Bal. We can say the scientists attached to the antiviral molecule "homing warhead," which identifies HIV and hands "viral contraceptive" through the protein membrane. Efficiency of molecular hybrid were tested in experiments by biologists in vitro and in transgenic mice that have human immune system (the genotype of RAG - hu). That is, virologists were studying the effectiveness of the drug relative to human rather than simian immunodeficiency of monkeys. Biologists have treated animals with a hybrid, and individual components - aptameroa and siRNA. Researchers compared the results with controls - uninfected and infected animals, with those who did not receive treatment. It was found that the hybrid molecule inhibits immunodeficiency virus better than others. Depending on the intensity of therapy, a normal level of lymphocytes (immune cells that die due to HIV) was stored for 3-9 weeks. The concentration of viral RNA in the blood dropped to undetectable levels for more than 3 weeks. Scientists noticed that the hybrid non-toxic molecule also causes mutations in the virus: HIV is trying to adjust to the medication. However, among the mutations do not have any dominant. This means that the virus can not learn to ignore the medication too quickly. "The molecule is not toxic, but it must be yet another test. We hope that patients with persistent or painful sensitivity to HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) will have a chance not to die in the coming years," - noted the researchers. It is known that patients with AIDS kills even the "native" opportunistic organisms - those that are present in healthy human microflora. Scientists have not yet won HIV because of high variability (mutagenicity) of viral genetic material. It is true that pharmacologists have learned to tame the virus with highly active antiretroviral therapy. With regular use of medication and proper nutrition infected people do not lose efficiency and can fully live about 10 years. However, this therapy in the treatment loses effectiveness - the patient develops resistance to drugs. And the side effects are not pleasant one: from the uneven obesity (too thin legs and fat belly and neck), and the lesion of the internal organs and nervous system.
Apr 5, 2011
Dr. Andrew Toledo, an expert on fertility from Emory University and associate professor in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, confirmed that the couples are using egg white as a vaginal lubricant to facilitate conception. "This is not some kind of magic, - says Dr. Toledo. - It is useful only as a lubricant for those couples who have a problem with dryness." He advises couples to use egg whites only for a few days a month when a woman can conceive. In the remaining days of the month they should use any lubricants which are preferred.
Why egg white? Dr. Toledo said that he was intrigued by the results of research in Canada, which showed that the egg white has the least impact on the mobility and survival of sperm.
"This is reasonable, - he said. - Egg white - is a pure protein and most of the sperm by nature is a pure protein. The sperm does not feel good in the media the structure of which is different from it.
Six, seven or eight couples who have told me that they need some lubrication, it has helped - he said. - A few couples who tried it, managed to conceive the child. But do not use egg white if you are allergic to eggs, - says Dr. Toledo. - Remove the egg from the refrigerator in advance so it was not cold, and separate the white from the yolk. There is no difference if you smear this stuff at the head of the penis or vagina".
Cigarettes can affect fertility of both men and women. Examination of men showed that smokers were significantly more likely than nonsmokers, less than normal sperm count and lower sperm motility. Survey of 17,032 women, conducted in England showed that the more cigarettes a woman smoked per day, it is less likely that she is fertile. The researchers suggest that smoking may alter hormone levels in women.
Apr 4, 2011
Prostatitis is the inflammation of the prostate. It can be acute or chronic, infectious or noninfectious. In this regard, are distinguished acute prostatitis, chronic infectious prostatitis and chronic non-infectious prostatitis. If the patient has symptoms of prostatitis (especially pain in the perineum), but there are no signs of inflammation of the prostate, such condition is called pelvic pain syndrome.
How prevalent is prostatitis?
According to the most accurate statistical studies of chronic prostatitis is suffering from 3 to 12% of men. Symptoms that are characteristic to prostatitis have a much larger number of people. However, they suffer from other diseases (hemorrhoids, rectal fissure, neurogenic bladder dysfunction, BPH, urethritis, etc.).
How does the disease manifest?
Prostatitis can develop suddenly as an acute inflammatory disease with all the relevant symptoms. In this case, the patient will have fever, body temperature 38-39 ° C, sharp pains in the perineum, groin, with the pubis, anus, painful urination and defecation.
However, significantly more likely to develop prostate in chronic form, without disturbing the man too much. In this case, all these only the symptoms will be present to a much lesser extent, sometimes completely without attracting attention. Body temperature rarely rises to 37 ° C, occasionally marked pain or discomfort in the perineum, discomfort during urination and defecation, during which a minor may experience discharge from the urethra - one of the most characteristic symptoms of chronic prostatitis.
Part of the prostate develops as a complication of chronic infectious diseases, sexually transmitted - chlamydia, trichomoniasis, ureaplasmosis or another. In this case, the disease may occur only very minor changes - discomfort during urination become a little harder, they are joined by a slight pain in the perineum, discharge from the urethra during bowel movements. Changes already are not too bright clinical disease may be so insignificant that patients do not pay any attention to them.
After some time, prostatitis, as a rule, men have problems with erection. This is due to the involvement in inflammation of the nerves responsible for erectile function, which passes through the prostate gland. Chronic prostatitis is a very negative impact on the general state of health of man, making him extremely irritable and grumble, unhappy and anxious. Often it occurs so often that the doctors say that for the successful treatment of prostatitis should be not only a good urologist and a psychologist.
Apr 1, 2011
Causes of obesity
Obesity (adipositas) - is a disease characterized by excess fat in the subcutaneous tissue and other tissues of the body, as well as exceeding the normal (ideal) body weight by 20% and more.
Causes of obesity:
Obesity is a very complex problem because it has more causes than effective means to fight.
* The most common cause of obesity - is excess of calorie food dominated the evening feeding with low physical activity. Calculations show that it is enough t receive one "extra", i.e. not obstructed by energy consumption, a sandwich with cheese or a glass of milk a day to increase body weighy by 10 kg in 10 years. Usually the family are all overweight. * Attacks of gluttony (namely seizures) occurring 2 times a week, after which remains the non-recognition of such a behavior, but there is no way to cope with them - a sign of nervous. This is not a disease but rather a disorder of behavior that can be corrected by psychotherapy. * Improper diet, which may be associated with both lack of knowledge of what to eat to get better, and with the financial capacity (diet products such as vegetables and fruits in winter, not everyone can afford). * Heredity. * Motionless way of life when there is a the tendency to eat well. * The onset of obesity in women is often associated with the period of lactation or more often with the onset of menopause.
Diet alone is rarely effective for weight loss - only if you have only a slight excess body weight or simply want to adjust the shape. Yes, someone will correct diet, but most of all - just combine it with exercise. Sometimes it takes a weight loss program that includes not only diet and exercise, and psychotherapy. And some patients can not do without drugs or surgery. Only an integrated approach - the key to solving the obesity problem.
Mar 31, 2011
Chronic Lack Of Sleep Leads To Hypertension
Women who sleep less than five hours at night have an increased risk of developing hypertension, according to 'Hypertension' journal. This conclusion was made by British scientists at Warwick University, who conducted a study involving nearly 6,600 people. It turned out that the woman who sleep less than5 hours a day, suffered from high blood pressure are twice as likely than those who slept seven or more hours. In men this pattern was not found, the researchers reported. It is known that hypertension, which refers to elevated blood pressure more than 140/90 mm Hg, is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. "We found that lack of sleep not only increases the risk of hypertension, but also causes heart attacks and strokes," - said the head of research professor Francesco Cappuccio. He also noted that in earlier studies, the lack of sleep has been called a risk factor for obesity and diabetes. Meanwhile, the important role played not only the duration of sleep, but also the wake-up time, say Japanese scientists. According to research conducted by specialists in several universities and hospitals of Kyoto, the so-called "larks" are at increased risk of hypertension and heart attack, according to Bloomberg. After analyzing the data of 3,017 people aged 23 to 90 years, scientists have concluded that even a morning exercise cannot serve as a basis for early wake-up. According to scientists, people standing up before 5 am, 1.7 times more likely to get sick hypertension and 2 times more often - atherosclerosis, compared with those who get up two or three hours later. "Our results refute the widespread view that 'early risers' have more robust health," - said the head of research Maiuko Kadono at the Congress of the World Federation of Sleep Research and Sleep Medicine, recently finished in Australia.
Mar 30, 2011
Key Myths About Antibiotics
According to statistics, antibiotics are being misused in almost half cases, wrotes "Science and Life." One of the most common fallacies is the belief that the duration of a course of antibiotics should be 10-14 days. In fact, the continuance of antibiotic treatment before the complete disappearance of symptoms is not necessary, and often to achieve the efeects are sufficient short courses and even a single dose of medications. The second misconception concerns the need to change medications every 5-7 days to prevent development of drug resistance in microbes. However, the replacement of an effective drug to others does not reduce but, on the contrary, increases the risk. If, however, the patient's condition does not improve in the first 2-3 days, the medication should be changed immediately. Scientists believe that the opinion of the toxicity and inhibitory effect of antibiotics on immunity is wrong, as well. Older antimicrobial agents actually possess these undesirable properties, but now medications that suppress the immune system, have not yet sorted out the stage of preclinical research. However, some antibiotics, such as macrolides, do not inhibit but even stimulate the immune system. In this connection, experts do not recommend that antimicrobial therapy should be accompanied by immunomodulators and allergy medications, but antifungal agents are advised to use only in patients with weakened immune systems - people living with HIV or cancer. Are greatly exaggerated also the belief of such a side effect of antibiotics as disbacteriosis (candidosis). In most cases, experts say that the change in the combination of intestinal microflora caused by antimicrobials is not clinically manifested, does not require a special correction and passes off independently. If the medication is accompanied by side effects such as diarrhea, it is better to change the drug, however, medications that restore microflora are not required in this case. Many doctors believe that the most effective way is to introduct antibiotics directly into the focus of infection. However, most modern drugs reach the required concentrations in infected tissue and in case of intravenous injection. In addition, when used topically it is difficult to calculate the optimal dose, that is why it is justified only when there are skin infections, conjunctivitis, vaginosis and external otitis. Struggle with similar misconceptions among clinicians can significantly improve the quality and safety of antimicrobial therapy, say scientists.
Mar 29, 2011
Manage Your Stress With...Olive Oil
Every year, our body is exposed to seasonal stress. Every time we need to restructure not only psychologically but also physically. In this regard, the most severe of all is the winter time: a decrease in temperature, frequent colds, lack of light and lack of oxygen leads to the fact that the body runs out and we fall into seasonal depression. But most importantly, it was winter, the body is experiencing an acute shortage of vitamins. Lack of ultraviolet radiation in winter leads to a decrease of vitamin D, regulates calcium metabolism, and therefore suffer the most hair and skin. Increased susceptibility to infectious diseases associated with shortage of vitamin C, and the dark circles under eyes, headaches and drowsiness that are so characteristic for the winter season, may be associated with a lack of vitamin K. However, a pantry of all vital substances to the human body is in... olive oil. Olive oil - is a wonderful source of healthy fats and now the majority of the inhabitants of developed countries consuming too much bad, saturated fat, which is fraught with development of obesity, gallstones and other metabolic disorders. To avoid these serious problems dieticians and doctors recommend eating an alternative to animal fats - vegetable oils, particularly olive oil. Miraculous effects of olives and oils, manufactured from them became legendary, the virgin olive oil is called "liquid gold", and study its properties identified in the special science. Thus, the use of olives in part provides the recommended daily allowance of fiber, which is in 1930 estimated that 25 g olives (or 7 pieces) provide the human body with approximately 0.28 g of sodium. Also, they contain a certain amount of minerals like calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, phosphorus. Olives also contain iodine. In the pulp of olives to eat sugar, protein, pectin, vitamins A, C and carotene. They are well affect the digestive tract and liver, strengthen the skeleton. Fruits and olive oil made from them, promote healing of ulcers, wounds, bruises, insect bites. In the olive oil also contain the necessary human vitamins A, E, D, K, which reinforce the bone, muscle, and intestinal wall, fight free radicals, preventing the aging processes. It consists of useful fatty acids. And namely monounsaturated: polyunsaturated and oleic: linoleic and linolenic. Olive oil has: • choleretic effect and helps relieve the body after a holiday binge eating; • improves digestion (positively affecting the liver, stomach, intestine); • prevents the development of diabetes and obesity; • helps to normalize blood pressure; • lowers cholesterol and, hence, reduces the risk of atherosclerosis, angina, heart attack; • provides a means for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (such as saves from thrombosis).
Mar 28, 2011
Smoking Leads To Alcoholism
Lovers of alcohol probably noticed that almost after every drunk glasses of wine, beer or a glass of vodka the body 'askes' for a dose of nicotine. It turns out that even non-smokers, in general, people are starting another alcoholic "marathon", lend themselves to the common temptation and take the cigarettes, when in a sober state would never allow. However, few of us know what actually takes place the feedback: most smokers are not only degrade intellectually, but also are at risk of being addicted to alcohol. What explains this "neighborhood" of these two bad habits, whose combination is truly destructive to the human body? Is it possible for this phenomenon lie some chemical processes occurring in the brain? These are the questions that the American scientists from the University of Washington Medical School tried to answer, headed by Richard Gruchy, they and found that the brains of smokers are most susceptible to alcohol. As a result of large-scale survey in which data were collected from 75 thousand people, it was found that the risk of being dominated by "green dragon" for the fans to smoke was half times higher than for nonsmokers. And what is the worst thing - this is most clearly exemplified in the teens. For example, a survey of children aged 15 to 17 years, who a month earlier have drunk at least eight servings of alcohol, showed: 20% of the respondents were smokers being already drunk, whereas among non-smokers, the figure constitued only 5%. "These data suggest that smokers are more responsive to alcohol - the researchers explain. - It is evident that the nicotine makes the adolescent brain more receptive to other addictions." According to scientists, an explanation of this phenomenon is simple enough: the drugs (and nicotine is certainly one of them) act on the pleasure center in the brain, and if the department is already under the influence of one drug, then on the impact of any other drug it will react much more strongly. "The teenage is that period of life when other people more prone to all kinds of dependencies" - sums up Richard Gruch. So cigarettes and alcohol, he said, is the most pernicious for young people.
Mar 25, 2011
Cancer And Red Wine
Scientists were able to pick up a dose of resveratrol - a natural antioxidant of red wine, which in the course of radiation therapy helps to protect healthy cells, but also weakens the protection of cancer. It is better to drink grape juice. Oncology has always been open to herbal medicines, ranging from photodynamic therapy to the powerful poisons, not recommended by doctors, even under the most severe cases. However, not all of them have selective action on tumor cells, in contrast to new drugs of Rochester Medical Center. They have become known not only the medical community resveratrol antioxidant. The last time was shown his role in an experimental treatment for stroke and diabetes, and researchers have even claimed to have found a new drug that can cope with many diseases of aging, like heart attacks, cancer and Alzheimer's disease. At this time a group of diseases amenable to this "panacea", now is supplemented by pancreatic cancer. Effect of antioxidant from grape peel is achieved through the action of resveratrol on the mitochondria - the power stations of every cell in our body. As the project manager Paul Okuneff pointed out, in combination with resveratrol prior admission with conventional radiotherapy is achieved the sinergetic effect, and cancer cells trigger apoptosis. The oncologists were struggling with this task from the very opening of programmed cell death. According to the oncologist, although the consumption of red wine during radiation or chemotherapy to date has not been thoroughly studied, it is not contraindicated. Now the exception of wine from the daily diet is at the discretion of doctors, any recommendations on this occasion not. However, if the patient is already taking a small amount of wine, the majority of oncologists would not object this. The situation with antioxidants in cancer is controversial, because, besides the protection of healthy tissue, they can also affect the tumor. Okuneff believes that this is unlikely and in the body even develops an opposite situation.
Mar 24, 2011
First Artificial Blood Vessels
Yet nothing is known about how much money patients have to spend to grow an additional vessel. California-based company Cytograft Tissue Engineering reports about the fact that they managed to create the world's first working blood vessels from cells of patients who require hemodialysis. The new technology will reduce the risk of rejection of artificial blood vessels. Hemodialysis (or blood purification) is needed for patients with renal insufficiency. Blood is redirected to the artificial blood vessels in the machine, which runs it through a series of filters and returns the patient's body. Since the procedure should be carried out quite often, doctors try to accelerate the process as much as possible. To do this, patients are implanted in the hand a small blood vessel (shunt) that sits between the artery and vein. Through it it is possible to select and return blood in the human body. Usually for this purpose doctors try to take a piece of vein of the patient (to avoid further rejection of the immune system). However, often these shunts are deteriorating rapidly, and they must be replaced with plastic or other synthetic vessels. Such an "option" may cause rejection or problems with blood flow in the lower vessels. Hence, a more natural shunt, decided the specialists under the leadership of Todd McAllister from Cytograft Tissue Engineering, and tried to create a vessel from the donor cells. Scientists have developed the following scheme for cultivation vessels: first they collect the fibroblasts from the patient's skin and grow from them a leaf, and then it is rolled into a tube, allowing the collagen and elastin to create an interpenetrating structure. The problem is that the fibroblasts can be transformed into smooth muscle cells and block the vessel. To avoid this, experts remove fibroblasts, leaving only the protein skeleton. Then the outer surface of the formed tube is covered by new fibroblasts (they can not get into the inner cavity of the future of the vessel). At the last stage of the inner tube lining endothelial cells of the patient, which provide unobstructed blood flow inside the new vessel. Team of McAllister received transplanted blood vessels of ten patients (in Argentina and Poland).
Mar 23, 2011
Coffee Helps With Alzheimer's Disease
Neuroscientists have found that caffeine can reduce the size of plaques that are formed in case of Alzheimer's disease on nerve cells and disrupts the brain's functioning. The discovery was made by scientists from the University of South Florida in the course of experiments on genetically modified mice. Studying the value of caffeine in the treatment of severe disease, the researchers were able not only to confirm pre-existing speculations about the beneficial role of coffee, but also to prove that the effect of the drink is associated including the changes at the level of nerve cells. In their work, American neuroscientists relied on the findings of their Portuguese colleagues, claiming that coffee drinkers are less likely to develop Alzheimer's disease. However, the reason for such a correlation in human studies were difficult to determine. Scientists emphasize: the agreed change of two variables (for example, increasing meat consumption and risk of gastric cancer) is valuable as a general observation to identify the most vulnerable groups. But how the disease develop and how it can be treated, such coincidences do not mean anything. To find out exactly how caffeine affects the brain in Alzheimer's disease, scientists have drawn genetically modified mice. Brains of animals received caffeine, then they were examined under a microscope and compared with brains of animals in the control group not receiving caffeine. Rodents received caffeine in drinking water and in amounts that researchers' calculations, and in terms of human standards, were two large cups of coffee per day. After two months of such "therapy" mice showed better compared with the control group results for orientation in the labirynth and remembering, and the number of plaques in their neurons decreased by half! This positive result gave scientists a hope. According to Gary Arendasha, a neuroscientist and one of the authors of the study, the dose of caffeine tested on mice for most people is harmless. With the caution coffee in such quantities should be consumed by people with high blood pressure and pregnant women.
Mar 22, 2011
A Certain Enzyme Can Prevent Premature Aging
Recently, scientists have demonstrated rejuvenation of the whole body of experimental mice, which have suffered from premature aging. Scientists have been able to do this by activating certain enzymes in the cell tissues. According to the magazine Nature, in this paper was investigated the effect of blocking of the enzyme telomerase, responsible for cell aging in humans.
Ronald De Pino, who is the head of a group of scientists, said that forced the launch of the enzyme in cells, tissues can be used to combat human diseases that are associated with premature or natural aging. The results showed that the shortening of this enzyme in mice is very rapid. Inclusion of the enzyme telomerase in mice that have reached maturity, makes it possible to draw a lot of the trend. For example, to regain reproductive function, and restore bodies to a degenerative condition (intestine, liver, etc.). Thus, activation of this enzyme can be used for the treatment of rare diseases in humans.
Mar 21, 2011
For any elderly people suffering from heart failure medications do not help. Researchers from the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles came to the conclusion that modern drugs that are being prescribed for older people to treat diastolic heart failure are totally ineffective.
Recently, the U.S. tendency to aging of the nation, has a consequence that more and more elderly people are in need of treatment for heart diseases. Despite this, doctors do not still known much about the effect that such treatment has on the body of people in old age. "We do not have a lot of information about heart failure in patients older 80 years old," - said study leader Dr. Ernst R. Schwarz, who is the head of the cardiology program assistance and one of the leaders of a heart transplant program in Sedars Sinai (Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute).
The scientists studied elderly people with diastolic dysfunction. In the presence of such pathology systolic function normally. "This means that the heart muscle is reduced in these patients without deviating from the norm, the opposite process is broken," - explained Dr. Schwartz.
Diastolic dysfunction is fairly common disease, occurring in 50% of all the "heart" of patients. Basically, elderly and women suffer from them. But, despite this prevalence, doctors are still experiencing serious difficulties as to the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
"We do not know how to treat such patients. The fact that the techniques used today are only suitable for the treatment of systolic dysfunction "- the doctor says. "There are some definite diastolic dysfunction treatments, that are not yet available.
In the survey observations were involved 142 patients aged over 87 years. In the 5 years that the staff needed a center for studying the problem, 69% of the patients died. The researchers concluded that none of the commonly prescribed drugs - including statins, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, calcium channel blockers, nitrates and digoxin - does not produce tangible results: die as patients taking these drugs, so and those without them. "These findings are relevant, at least for patients older than 80 years" - said Schwartz.
Dr. Byron Lee, a cardiologist and assistant professor of medicine at University of California, San Francisco, was skeptical of the results obtained from the research. "I would avoid such categorical statements", said Dr. Lee. "After all, it was a controlled study. I mean, that patients taking cardiovascular drugs may have been much weaker than the other patients. But drugs could at least affect the fact that they lived as much under investigation, have not taken any drugs. "
Nevertheless, Dr. Schwartz has suggested that patients can go lower doses of cardiac drugs. In any case, he said, to develop new methods of treatment of diastolic dysfunction requires further study.
"We really have no information on how to better treat these patients and how to treat them all. While we are just beginning our journey in trying to understand how the human body with age. Perhaps we should be more careful with certain kinds of medicines and their dosage. In future studies we will pay special attention to elderly patients, "- said Dr. Schwartz.
Mar 18, 2011
Erection Problems & The Risk Of Heart
Men with erection problems at 80% are more likely to suffer from heart disease than persons of the stronger sex, who do not complain about the potency. Such conclusions made by experts from the Clinic Mayo (USA) based on data from the recently completed study. According to scientists, men aged 40 to 49 years with symptoms of erectile dysfunction were twice as likely to suffer from heart disease.
The study, published in the February issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, give grounds for doctors of patients suffering from erectile dysfunction to pay attention not only on the underlying disease, but also for possible future heart problems.
Researchers failed to find a connection between problems with impotence and heart disease. Some scientists have suggested that erectile dysfunction, and atherosclerosis (chronic disease of certain types of arteries) are the same reasons. According to experts, formed in the arteries of deposits (atheromatous plaque) that narrow the lumen of blood vessels and cause atherosclerosis, may initially strike the arteries associated with sexual function. Other experts believe that over time, the arteries lose elasticity, and it primarily affects erection, and later on the heart.
The study involved 1,402 men aged 40 years and above residing in Olmsted County (Minnesota). The patients were monitored for 10 years, starting in 1996. At the beginning of observations, none of the subjects had complained of heart problems.
During observations revealed that with age, the percentage suffering from erectile problems increased. Of men aged 40-49 years, only 2.4 percent of the subjects complained of potency. Among patients 50-59 years have 5,6 percent complained of potency. In 60-69 years, the percentage of participants with erectile dysfunction has increased to 17 and after 70 years reached 38.8.
In men aged 50 and older, with symptoms of impotence number of complaints about problems with the heart was more than those who did not complain of erectile dysfunction. With men of 40-49 years this trend was less apparent.
Men aged 70 and over, erection problems were no longer unambiguous precursors of heart disease in the future.
According to experts, the experimental results can help detect diseases of the heart and blood vessels in the early stages, which would significantly increase the probability of their effective treatment.
Mar 17, 2011
The most significant event in the treatment of hypertension over the past half-century. In December 2009, the British cardiologist for the first time carried out an operation, that can cure the patient of hypertension. The first who was operated on a new methodology was a man of 68 years old. In addition to hypertension, Anthony Henry suffers from diabetes, thrombophlebitis, and has a history of stroke. During the operation, which lasted about an hour, the patient was awake and kept talking with doctors operating him. After the operation nurses conducted surveillance Anthony Henry during the day, according to doctors and patients will continue to write immediately after the operation.
In preliminary research physicians examined the mechanisms of hypertension and, in particular, the role of the kidneys in these mechanisms. It is known that renin, which is a precursor of angiotensin I, produced by the kidneys under the influence of prostaglandins, regulated kallikrein-kinin system. In this case, excitation of sympathetic nerves leads to activation of renal kallikrein-kinin system and, consequently, increased concentrations of angiotensin I. Angiotensin I, in turn, under the action of ACE is transformed into the active vasoconstrictor angiotensin II, and that contributes to high blood pressure.
The essence of the new method of treating hypertension is the introduction of a blood vessel of a special device and burning with an electric current of renal sympathetic nerve. Ablation of renal sympathetic nerve (the correct name of the operation) inhibits the passage of the pulse, preventing the launch of the kallikrein-kinin system, prevents high blood pressure and, consequently, reduces the risk of stroke, heart attack and renal dysfunction.
According to the preliminary assumptions of the doctors, the result after operation is shown in full force after 3 months. To date, 10% of patients suffering from hypertension, can not hold the blood pressure is normal with antihypertensive drugs, because of their ineffectiveness or intolerance to their member components. Treatment of hypertension by surgery will give hope to such patients and, in addition, to avoid prescribing medications the consumption of which which usually lasts the whole life.
Mar 16, 2011
Another Cause Of Depression
The systematic use of alcohol may cause a genetic predisposition to depression. "Alcohol abuse, among other adverse effects, may increase the genetic predisposition for depression - according to researchers from New Zealand.
Previously conducted study of this question have shown a direct relationship of alcohol dependence and depression. But there was no proof that one disorder causes the other, or that similar genetic and environmental factors increase the risk of both states.
During the study, conducted surveillance of 1055 patients treated for alcohol dependence and depression in the period from 17 to 18 years, from 20 to 21 years and from 24 to 25 years. Number of participants who have experienced alcohol dependence and major depression were: 19.4% and 18.2% respectively in age from 17 to 18, 22.4% and 18.2% aged 20 to 21, 13.6% and 13.8% aged 24 to 25 years.
"Alcohol dependence increased the risk of depression, 1.9 times for patients of all ages" - says David M. Ferguson and his colleagues from the Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences.
"These results show that alcohol dependence can cause a deep depression, but a deep depression, often does not cause alcohol abuse."
So far scientists can not justify the results of his research, but suggest that because of alcohol abuse gets a genetic reaction, which resulted in often become depressed.
"Alcohol addiction is the cause of social, financial troubles and problems with the law, which in turn causes stress and increases the risk of depression - the researchers said. According to experts, examination of the relationship of alcohol dependence and depression will be continued in the future.
Mar 15, 2011
How To Cleanse The Liver?
In our frenzied lives, we continually overload our liver with all sorts of excesses. The liver is suffering thus a lot. And get a heaviness in the side, and bitterness in the mouth. But what foods can help 'calm' the liver? The most useful products for the liver are listed below:
1. Pumpkin in all forms, pumpkin seeds. 2. Vegetable Soup - vegetarian or strained meat broth. 3. Lean white meat (beef, turkey, chicken) in boiled, baked without oil as steam cutlets. 4. Lean fish (cod, perch, carp, saffron cod) in a steam or baked form. 5. Cottage cheese with fat content less than 2% (100-200 g / day), as well as yogurt, sour tang. 6. Porridges: buckwheat, oats. 7. Vegetable oils, especially olive oil, cold pressed. 8. Vegetables - in the form of fresh salads with olive oil. 9. Dried apricots, raisins. 10. Jelly, jelly, pudding. 11. Bread, cereal, dried better. 12. Broth rosehip and chamomile.
BY THE WAY
Liver - is largest organ in the human body can weigh up to 1,5 kg. Its cells - hepatocytes - are responsible for vital processes: the processing of proteins, carbohydrates and fats processing and removal from the body's decay products. The liver has a remarkable ability to repair itself. Even if a part of the liver remains after operation it recovers again in a few weeks.
Mar 14, 2011
How To Cope With A Cough?
One of the most unpleasant - and familiar to all - the effects of cold - is cough. Sometimes it hurts in the night, overpower the others in the morning. And for someone enough sips of cold water or a frosty air, to hear once again begin to cough.
Keep in mind, the more you cough, the harder to get rid of it.
So start the fight the best in the first three days of cold - when the cough has not. 3-4 times a day, rinse the nose with salt water, and every hour gargle the throat with a solution Furacilinum or tea soda and chamomile extract, sage and aloe. Typically, such intensive therapy gives the result: the throat is no longer sick and the infection does not "fall" of the upper airway in lower ones.
By the end of the first week of cold is not just a sore throat and starts coughing - a dry, painful, hacking. At this stage the problem is different: to make a dry cough in the wet, less irritating delicate bronchial tubes, then the healing process goes faster.
The third week passed - a cold seems to subside, but you still have a cough? Here improvised means not do - is likely to need help pulmonologist. Prolonged cough is dangerous, even if not very worried. This is a signal that the bronchi do not do their job!
Most likely you will be assigned antibiotics. To do so should a doctor and only after you have passed all the tests. Neglect a visit to the doctor is not necessary - a month later the cough may develop into chronic bronchitis!
If the cough is manifested again and again - for seizures, especially in wet and cool weather, when temperatures drop - most likely the infection has become chronic. Yes, and bronchitis can be treated - but how much labor, time and money will have to spend it! The best means of bronchitis - salt cave - session in a room walls of which are covered with salt crystals, and of course, a long stay in the dry and hot climate.
Mar 11, 2011
Following the desire to lose weight women often choose a diet. And all would do, but very often the diet is based on myths and erroneous beliefs, and therefore does not produce the desired result.
The first and main mistake women is that they believe in the miracle of most diets, attributing them a phenomenal possibilities and looking forward to stunning effect. Being on a diet, many women stop counting the calories of food consumed. And in vain. Even eating only products listed in the menu diet, you need to know exactly how many calories you consume and spend throughout the day.
Some women believe that dieting means starving yourself. Such an approach can not be considered true and not just because of the extra weight you do not get rid of, and even for the reason that you are harming your health.
Another mistake was losing weight that they feel a diet full and sufficient means to reduce weight, giving up all sorts of sports and physical activity. In addition, women often put the goal only to lose weight without thinking about how to proceed will be on normal diet and maintain weight at the desired level.
In addition, many rely on the widespread rumors that you can quickly lose weight without harm to health that is useful to starve, and that the slimming pills can work wonders. It must be remembered that the benefits can only the diet that worked for you personally dietitian, taking into account individual peculiarities of your organism.
And those who do not want to sit on a diet or not to believe in their effectiveness, comes to the aid plastic surgery. Liposuction, Abdominoplasty, buttocks plastic and many other procedures to help you quickly and efficiently bring your body back to normal.
Mar 10, 2011
Thyroid Is The Health Guard
Thyroid diseases are one of the most spread in the world. They stand in a line with diabetes and diseases of the cardiovascular system. But in most cases the diagnosis can not be made immediately - since irregularities of the endocrine system functioning is often disguised as other ailments!
Skin has become yellowish with a peach tint? The first thing that comes to mind - I have jaundice. And actually this color is in case of hypothyroidism - insufficient thyroid function. Hormone deficiency violates the transformation of the yellow pigment carotene into vitamin A.
Heart aches a little. Are you sure that this is the usual neurosis? It is necessary to examine the thyroid. Lack of hormonal influences on the heart may cause a slowing of pace - less than 60 beats per minute, heart failure, reduce or increase of blood pressure.
Thyroid hormones are responsible for thermoregulation, and their lack of you constantly freezing, tired, lethargic - almost as if depressed. Hypothyroidism can cause arthritis, digestive problems. Even the stones in the gall bladder - one of the typical "mask" the lack of thyroid hormones. A more visual and hearing disorders, snoring and frequent colds.
Weight gain? First of all it's worth examining the thyroid gland. Lack of hormones disrupt metabolism, raises blood cholesterol levels, atherosclerosis develops, and even obesity.
The problems can be prevented and conflicting symptoms, weight loss, palpitations and arrhythmia, as well as irritability, short temper, sharp mood swings. Gamy character - is a consequence of thyrotoxicosis - an excess of thyroid hormones in the body. Such a hormonal imbalance is not only thyroid disease. There are also cysts, tumors that respond to treatment better than previously detected.
Mar 9, 2011
Stress Hurts Not Only Soul But Also The Skin
Stress is recognized as one of the most serious evils of our time. That is why the revelation of its effects on the body concerns the specialists. It was recently discovered another "dark side" of stress: the scientists found that the worrings weaken the protective function of the skin, leaving it virtually defenseless against the germs.
This is the conclusion of the University of San Francisco under the guidance of a professor of medicine Kenneth Feingold. A series of experiments conducted by scientists it was found that stress not only disrupts the normal functioning of the skin, but also affects its structure.
The experiment was conducted on a special breed of mice differing in the absence of hair. To test his theory, researchers have subjected the rodents to a hard stress: in their kages for two days was burning a bright light, but indoors, where the experiments were held has always played the radio.
In stress situations the adrenal cortex begins to vigorously produce hormones glucocorticoids, because of that, respectively, their levels in the body increases. Therefore, in order to identify the effects of stress, part of the mice were given drugs that suppress the synthesis of these hormones. At the end of the experiment, scientists found that rodents treated with drugs, had skin not much better than their counterparts who received the full "dose" of glucocorticoids.
Experience with the participation of people had a staff of the University of Illinois. Assuming that depression affects physical health, they attracted to participate 193 students in the experiment. Each of them were made a little sore under anesthesia in the corner of the mouth, after which the scientists have only pictures of it every day, tracking the healing process.
To completely get rid of this injury, the body requires an average of about a week. However, students who were in a state of depression, noted that the wound heals much longer. Scientists have also noted an interesting fact: the feeling of loneliness, which is considered the cause of depression, did not affect the rate of healing wounds. The main "enemy" of skin health of the study appeared to be just a classic depression.
Mar 7, 2011
WHO Alarmed With Tuberculosis Spreading Amon
'Procession' of tuberculosis on the planet slows its pace, but not fast enough to meet its target: by 2015 to halve prevalence and mortality from this disease as compared with 1990 levels.
This was reported in a new report by the World Health Organization (WHO), published in Geneva on the occasion of World TB Day.
Particular attention is paid to the incidence of among HIV-infected patients. Today about 14 million people worldwide suffer from HIV / AIDS and tuberculosis simultaneously. It is known that HIV weakens the immune system to infectious diseases. In 2007 there were 1.37 million of new cases of TB among people living with HIV. In the same year, 456,000 people died, suffering from both these two infectious diseases.
Of particular concern to WHO experts is also kind of drug-resistant tuberculosis. In 2007, this form of tuberculosis was approximately in 500 thousand people. Less than one percent of them received the necessary treatment.
Totally worldwide in 2007 there were 9.27 million new cases of tuberculosis. Typically, tuberculosis respond well to treatment with four standard drugs. But if you interrupt the course or the use of counterfeit or substandard drugs, the disease can be refractory to further treatment. In this situation, we need new drugs to treat drug-resistant tuberculosis.
Mar 4, 2011
Cancer Vaccine From Tobacco Leaves
Employees at Stanford University have successfully tested the vaccine on follicular lymphoma obtained from genetically-modified tobacco leaves. New technology allows us to obtain the necessary treatment for a patient of personalized medicine for a week. Developed by scientists therapeutic vaccine stimulates the production of antibodies that selectively destroy cancerous cells. Since follicular lymphomas have different antigenic characteristics, the optimal vaccine composition is selected individually for each patient.
Required to begin preparation of the vaccine's genetic material is introduced into plants with the help of the virus - the causative agent of tobacco diseases. One week after infection in the leaves of plants accumulate a sufficient number of protein antigens that can be easily extracted and injected into the patient's body.
In clinical trials of the vaccine took part 16 patients with B-cell follicular lymphoma. In none of them the introduction of the drug did not cause significant adverse reactions. Specific immune response to vaccine was detected in 47 % of the participants.
The task of the first phase of testing was to evaluate the safety of a new drug, so its influence on the development of the disease is not yet rated. However, the earlier a similar technique for treatment of follicular lymphoma showed a high efficacy in mice.
One of the advantages of plant vaccine is its low cost. As the researchers note, their technology can be used for industrial production of a wide variety of biomedical products.
Mar 3, 2011
A New Way To Lower Cholesterol Found
Scientists have found a new way to lower cholesterol, leading to a new generation of drugs.
The team of researchers from the University of New South Wales, which was led by Associate Professor Andrew Brown discovered that an important role in the development of the body cholesterol has the enzyme squalene monooxygenase (CM). If we compare the production of cholesterol from the assembly line, then the enzyme squalene monooxygenase may be represented as a link in this chain. Moreover, it can be considered a kind of reference point in this process.
The currently available means to reduce blood cholesterol levels only affect one in twenty of enzymes involved in the chain for the production of cholesterol. It is an inhibitor of the enzyme-CoA reductase, HMG (HMG-CoA reductase) or statins.
- Widely used now for cholesterol-lowering statin class of drugs made a revolution in the pharmacological world - said Professor Brown. - They act on CoA reductase HMG, which is involved in the early stages of the production of cholesterol. Therefore, its inhibition effect on all subsequent units of this process and other useful substances, whose composition it enters. Some people therefore faced with the negative side effects such as muscle pain.
According to scientists, the most important thing is that the enzyme SM serves as a unique reference point on the final stage of the production of cholesterol. Therefore, it is better to work on this enzyme, without interfering in the early stages, reports Sciencedaily. Although cholesterol is something that is not very useful, it is necessary for our body. For example, it participates in the elaboration of sex hormones, and in building cell walls.
The study is reported in the "Cell Metabolism" journal.
Mar 2, 2011
Mother's Milk To Prevent Obesity
Children whose mothers had diabetes are at risk of obesity, but only if the mother did not breast-feed them. Researchers found out that children who are faced with diabetes, even being in the womb, reaching adolescence have no predisposition to be overweight if breastfeeding is continued for 6 months or more.
As researchers found, the children at the age of 6 and 13 years did not differ from their peers whose mother had diabetes during pregnancy. At the same time, this protection does not work when breastfeeding lasted for less than 6 months.
- Our data suggest that breastfeeding may help to reduce the risk of obesity among children. This concerns first of all those kids whose mothers suffered from diabetes during pregnancy - said study author Dana Dabeleya, Professor of Epidemiology School from Colorado School of Public Health.
- Although obesity and the impact that maternal diabetes has in utero development, lead to the development in the child type 2 diabetes after a certain period of time, breast-feeding though may reduce the risk of developing the disease. However, to confirm that such protection does exist, more research is needed - emphasizes ATOR.
Breastfeeding not only helps to establish the mother-child deep emotional ties, but has also a very good effect on its further development, both in the short and long term. For example, breast milk helps reducing the risk of respiratory infections, the possibility of developing asthma and atopy protects against hypertension, diabetes, 1st and 2nd type.
The study is piblished in the magazine "Diabetes Care".
Mar 1, 2011
Mushrooms Will Fight Against Malaria
Genetically modified fungi can be highly effective and environmentally safe means of controlling malaria.
At the present time are applied pesticides to kill mosquitoes that cause malaria. However, widespread use of chemicals leads to the fact that they are becoming less effective. Researchers from the University of Maryland have proposed to use for malaria control genetically modified fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, which is parasitic on many species of insects, including mosquitoes.
Scientists have tested on mosquitoes two species of fungi. In one case, in the genome of the fungus scientists hoisted gene of human antibodies to malaria. In another - a scorpion toxin gene. In both cases, genetic modification has been specially designed to kill mosquitoes passeth malarial plasmodium Falciparum. Both varieties of genetically modified fungi, as well as conventional non-GM fungi were sprayed in a spray on mosquito-transmitting agents of malaria.
Comparing the effects of exposure of mosquitoes with fungi, the researchers found that regardless of what kind of transgenic fungi were processed, after it causes malaria, P. falciparum met only 25% of mosquitoes treated with these organisms. Plain common strain of the fungus was unable to significantly inhibit the development of plasmodia and malaria vector control were 87% of the mosquitoes. Almost as many (94%) carriers of infection were detected among the untreated fungus mosquitoes.
Scientists estimate that genetically modified fungi were able to slow the development of parasites in the five-fold compared with the common strain in nature. According to statistics from the World Health Organization, 240 million people every year in the world get infected with malaria. The victims of this infection are 850,000 cases, most of them are children.
- Use of our way to fight malaria through the transgenic fungus is universal, as it allows to create genetic organisms, capable of striking almost any arthropods, which is a peddler of disease - says the professor of entomology at the University of Maryland Raymond Leger.
Article telling about the study is published in the Science journal.
Feb 28, 2011
Strong Painkiller Found In Algae
American and Chilean scientists have created algae-based local anesthetic of prolonged action.
Every year, tens of millions of patients around the world are injected with anesthesia solutions to perform surgical operations. However, the action of modern local analgesics is no longer than 8 hours. When the anesthetic effect is weakened, the opioids have to be injected into patients, which have serious side effects such as nausea, sedation, respiratory failure.
Not so long ago there began the development of a new class of analgesics based on algae, the action of which takes 24 hours or more. Effectiveness of one of the drugs in this class - neosacsitocsine - scientists compared the action of the widely used now analgesic bupivacaine. The study was conducted involving 137 children who underwent surgery to remove the gallbladder.
In the end it turned out that a new drug can significantly reduce postoperative pain and for two days to reduce the recovery period. In this case, no serious side effects from the use of new tools have been identified.
Neosacsitocsine - is a sodium channel blocker that is based on molecules derived from aquatic organisms.
The study is reported in the journal "Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine" in the March-April issue.
Feb 24, 2011
Scientists Found Where Schizophrenia Hides
It was discovered a genetic mutation that leads to the breakdown of mental activity. (Schizophrenia - is a chronic disorder of mental activity that leads to disability. The disease is characterized by symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, and violation of mental activity.)
It is believed that the disease is caused by environmental factors and genetic causes. The disease develops at 1% of the population, or 10% of people, close relatives of them (parents, brother or sister) suffer from this disorder. Previous studies have shown that the risk of schizophrenia increases if a person shows the mutations that occur in several places in the genome (CNV-mutation). When these mutations in close relatives found a different number of copies of the same gene. However, genes involved in this process were not known to scientists.
In a recent study geneticists have managed to go further. Searching CNV-mutation the researchers examined the genomes of 8,290 people diagnosed with schizophrenia, as well as around 7,500 healthy people.
- We have discovered that schizophrenia is associated with specific mutations, occurring in several parts of the genome. Some of them have been investigated previously, but we found one more important thing - doubling at the end of the chromosome 7q occurs in patients with schizophrenia are 14 times more likely than healthy people. These CNV-mutations affect the receptor neuropeptide VIPR2 - the gene responsible for the development of the brain - says Jonathan Sebat, Associate Professor of Psychiatry, University of California in San Diego. This gene, known as VIPR2 or Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Receptor 2, expressing in the nervous system, including brain, blood vessels and digestive tract. There is also evidence that VIPR2 helps regulate the formation and activity of neurons in the brain. In rodents VIPR2 also plays an important role in the management of behavioral processes, including training and planning your day.
Scientists led by Sebata by examining blood cells, found that the mutation leads to a higher gene expression VIPR2 and greater receptor activity, writes Sciencedaily.
- We concluded that the mutation leads ultimately to strengthen the VIP signaling pathway - Sebat says. With this information, you can now find the appropriate treatment.
According to the researcher, the scientists now plan to test the effectiveness of therapy in mice and cultured human cells carrying a mutation VIPR2.
Feb 23, 2011
Cholesterol Worsens Memory
Raised levels of cholesterol and blood pressure leads not only to cardiovascular disease, but also memory impairment.
To find out how high cholesterol is associated with intellectual ability, french scientists from the National Institute of Health and Medical Research in Paris were invited to study 3,486 men and 1,341 women. The average age of participants was 55 years. All of them three times over 10 years were tested for cognitive abilities.
With the help of special tests were evaluated the ability of participants to reason, remember and express thoughts, as well as their vocabulary. In addition, the researchers calculated the possibility of cardiovascular disease occurence within the next 10 years. Were taken for the calculation such indicators as gender, age, level of "good" and total cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, and addiction to smoking.
The study showed that the higher the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, the lower were the cognitive abilities of the person and the faster they fell. For example, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease by 10% led to a deterioration of cognitive abilities, but the ability to reason logically in men and express the thoughts in women. In this case, men coped with the test of memory by 2,8% less, and women at 7.1%.
- The aptitude to cardiovascular disease leads to a decrease in cognitive abilities of both men and women - said study author Sarah Kaffashian from the National Institute of Health and Medical Research in Paris. - Our discovery demonstrates once more that risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, such as cholesterol and pressure play a role in the deterioration of cognitive abilities, which begins to appear in middle age.
Feb 22, 2011
A new vaccine that provides 100% protection against influenza has successfully passed the first stage of animal testing.
Researchers from the University of Adelaide under the guidance of Dr. Darren Miller conducted successful tests of a new universal flu vaccine. What is important, its release is planed in the form of nasal spray.
For the production of this synthetic vaccine is not used influenza virus, and it does not require annual renewal of its composition. For its creation scientists took special peptides that are getting into the body to build immunity once for all viruses types A and B. This is possible because the body's immune cells 'learn' to recognize a small area on the surface of the influenza virus that is identical in these two viruses.
Tests have shown that vaccination led to the development of 100% immunity to the virus H3N2 and 20% immunity to an extremely dangerous virus H5N1, known as avian influenza, which is comparable with the level of protection to provide antiviral drugs, writes Sciencedaily.com.
As they note, the new vaccine can be administered not only in the form of vaccinations. It can be applied in the form of a nasal spray that has several advantages. For example, non-invasive procedure is for those people who are afraid of needles. It is also important that when sprayed into the nasal passages in the mucosal immune response is generated in the very place where most people often get infected.
Modern universal vaccine may be freely used by allergic people, since its creation does not apply the usage of eggs. In addition, the universal vaccine will save scientists from the painstaking and laborious process to identify strains that are most prevalent in the coming season, as well as the need to undergo an annual vaccination.
The results of testing a new vaccine is reported in "Journal of General Virology".
Feb 21, 2011
The Placebo Effect Can Work In Reverse
During the treatment it is particularly important that the patient had expected a positive effect of drugs' action. Otherwise, medications may be useless.
Everyone is familiar with the placebo effect, when the expectations of the patient from taking medications help to cope with the disease more quickly. But when the placebo causes unwanted side effects, they are called "nocebo" which means "I do not get pleasure." This effect was studied by the staff of the University of Hamburg, led by Dr. Ulrike Bingel.
Studies have shown that patients start to feel more acute pain, if they find out that they are taking pain medication which does not work. 22 healthy volunteers participated in the study were enjected with a strong analgesic remifentanil. Participants were placed in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which scanned the brains of volunteers. Simultaneously, the subjects were connected to the apparatus for intravenous drugs.
First, researchers have tested the temperature effects on legs, which was estimated at about 70 points on a 100-point scale. At the same time, remifentanil was injected to volunteers, but the testees themselves did not know about this. As expected, when the anesthetic took effect, the level of pain in volunteers decreased, but only slightly (to 55 points). When volunteers were told that remifentanil began to act, they reported that they felt significant relief, and assessed the level of pain already at 39 points.
Then, to test the "nocebo" effect scientists said the volunteers that they were not injected with a painkiller, because of what they can again feel the pain, though actually anesthetic continued its effect. As a result, according to the volunteers, they really began to feel acute pain, the level of which has jumped to 64 points. That is, participants felt the same pain as if did not receive pain medication.
Moreover, auto-suggestion, as it turned out, affects brain function. As revealed by MRI scans, when people thought that anesthetic was acting, it was switched on that part of the brain which did not allow to enter the brain pain signals.
Feb 18, 2011
An Injection Will Save From Blindness
A simple and effective method of saving premature babies from blindness was offered by U.S. researchers.
They tried a new technique for treatment of retinal with medicines that turned out to be not only effective but also much cheaper than the methods used now.
Retinopathy - is the damage to the retina of the eyeball - a major cause of vision loss in childhood. This disease in preterm infants is considered the most dangerous and difficult to treat. It occurs in preterm infants of gestation term up to 34 weeks. When the disease is disruptive to the growth of blood vessels in the eye that can lead to scarring and retinal detachment.
In their study, Dr. Helen Mintz-Hittner and Alfred Lesher, professor of ophthalmology and visual sciences, University of Texas, compared the efficacy of treatment of retinopathy using the drug Bevacizumab and laser therapy.
For the study, researchers selected 143 children with severe retinopathy, which struck those areas of retina that are most difficult to treat. The experiment showed that after treatment relapse was observed in 6% of children treated with bevacizumab, and 42% of children have passed laser therapy.
For drug therapy retina is sufficient to make a local anesthetic and enter into the eye a small amount of drugs. The entire process takes 2-3 minutes, and the result is already visible after 24 hours. Under the action of the drug disappear abnormal blood vessels, and instead of them grow up normal. Patient retained the entire field of vision, and myopia developing in very rare cases.
The results were so impressive that some U.S. hospitals have abandoned the traditional treatment of retinopathy of prematurity with laser and now only use drug therapy.
Feb 17, 2011
If a young person starts to lose hair at the age of 20 years, this may be an alarming signal for the future development of prostate cancer.
French scientists found that in the initial stage of prostate cancer younger men were twice as likely than healthy people to develop alopecia (hair loss).
To elucidate the possible link between hair loss and prostate cancer group of scientists for more than two years studying the progression of the disease and especially baldness in men suffering from this cancer.
A total of 388 patients participated with prostate cancer. The control group consisted of more than 280 healthy males. Scientists asked subjects to indicate, does not appear if they have some signs of baldness at the age of 20, 30 and 40 years before was diagnosed with prostate cancer, and what type it is passed.
The study showed that the loss of hair at the age of 20 years in one form or another were found in 37 patients with prostate cancer and in 14 healthy men. Regardless of the form of alopecia, if the hair loss began at such an early age, the risk of prostate cancer in young men was two times higher than that of their "hairy" peers.
The head of the study, Dr. Philippe Giraud from the European Georges Pompidou Hospital in Paris, explains that the increased levels of androgens, which is marked by hair loss, also characteristic of prostate cancer.
Although alopecia at the age of 20 years can be seen as an obvious risk factor to assert with confidence that baldness and prostate cancer are linked, more research is needed, the authors note. Hair loss, aged 30-40 years should not be cause for concern, since it does not mean an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. As well as on its own hair loss in 20 years of age is not a sign that a man must develop a malignant tumor, the researchers emphasize.
Feb 16, 2011
Cereals, Fruits And Vegetables Prolong One's
Eating foods high in dietary fiber may reduce the risk of death by 22%, say U.S. researchers.
Employees of the National Cancer Institute in the United States analyzed data from a nationwide study of nutrition and health, in which were involved more than 388,000 volunteers. All of them had to answer the questionnaire, reporting on one's diet. On average, men who participated in the survey, daily consumed 13 to 29 grams of dietary fiber, and women - from 11 to 26 grams. The study lasted for about 9 years and during that time had died more than 21 000 men and 11,000 women.
At the risk of death in people who ate a large number of fibers was 22% lower than those whose diet was not rich by them. The threat of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases was also lower at 24-56% in men who ate foods high in fiber, and 34-59% in women who took a similar diet.
Moreover, as the scientists, the findings show that the death of people save specifically fiber contained in cereals, but not from those contained in fruit. Dietary fibers are particularly rich in cereals, vegetables, fruits, legumes and nuts.
- Previously, scientists have proven the link between consumption of dietary fiber and cardiovascular disease - the authors note. Now, however, they managed to establish a link between a diet rich in dietary fiber, and mortality.
But experts reacted ambiguously to the conclusions of authors of the study. You may find that people who consume foods rich in dietary fiber, simply lead a healthier lifestyle - more exercise, and refrain from smoking. Those who prefer processed foods, avoiding the attention of raw fruits and vegetables and less time paying their own health.
- It is not enough to just eat more healthy food rich in fibers to avoid serious diseases such as cardio-vascular diseases and diabetes - says nutritionist Samantha Heller of the Center for Cancer Therapy in Derby (Connecticut).
Published in 2010 by USDA "Dietary guidelines for Americans" recommend consuming 14 grams of daily dietary fiber for every 1000 kilocalories, an average 25 grams of fiber per day.
Feb 15, 2011
Fireplaces And Stoves Are Dangerous For Heal
Scientists warn that wood stoves and fireplaces can cause serious illnesses.
Millions of people around the world use wood for heating homes and for cooking, and are not even aware that endangered wood smoke exposure. A study conducted by Danish scientists found that contained in the smoke thin or so-called particulate particles, getting into the lungs, and has extremely negative impact on health.
For example, inhalation of fine particles provokes diseases such as asthma, bronchitis, diseases of the cardiovascular system.
Dr. Steffen Loft and colleagues measured the content of particulates in the center of a typical Danish village, where most residents are using wood stoves. The results obtained are scientists compared with measurements of air in a nearby village, whose inhabitants refused to furnace heating. It was found that identified in the analysis of country air particulates were as small in size, which can freely penetrate into the remotest parts of the lungs.
In this case, the air was identified a large number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which in humans provoke cancer. Among other things, solid particles are harmful to genetic material, altering the DNA, increasing the inflammatory processes and including the genes whose activity leads to disease.
It is worth noting that solid particles get into the air, not only by burning wood, but also from exhaust fumes.
Feb 14, 2011
The ability of chocolate to support the cardiovascular system better than some fruits and vegetables, got a scientific explanation.
Scientists have known for a long time that chocolate contributes to the development of high density lipoprotein or "good" cholesterol that protects against heart disease. However, to understand, due to what this sweet can improve the health of blood vessels and the heart, scientists have been able to know only recently.
Dr. Midori Natsumi and colleagues showed that the level of "bad" cholesterol affects the main ingredient of chocolate - cocoa. Contained in the cocoa polyphenols increase the activity of proteins, including proteins that bind to genetic material DNA, resulting in improved production of "good" cholesterol.
The study was conducted in cell cultures of human liver and intestinal tract. Scientists' attention was directed to study the production of apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) - the main component of "good" cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) - the main component of "bad" cholesterol.
As laboratory experiments showed, the liver and intestine of cocoa polyphenols increased the level of ApoA1, while reducing ApoB. Besides, polyphenols increases the activity of so-called binding protein sterol-regulatory element (SREBPs). These proteins are attached to the genetic material DNA, and include genes that increase the level of ApoA1, which leads to increased levels of "good" cholesterol, according to MedicalNewsToday.
Due to the high content of antioxidants in chocolate and flavanols, some researchers have even called chocolate "superfruit". And on their content chocolate is even ahead of fruit juices.
Researchers from the Hershey Center for Health & Nutrition compared the activity of antioxidants contained in cocoa powder and fruit-flour. As a result, it was found out that cocoa surpasses fruit both on the power of antioxidants, as well as on total flavanols. By comparing the amount of antioxidants in one serving of dark chocolate, cocoa, chocolate and fruit juice, experts found that dark chocolate and cocoa powder contains more powerful antioxidants (polyphenols and flavanols) than fruit juices.
- Cocoa seeds are the "superfruit", the food value of which far exceeds their macronutrient composition, - says study author Debra Miller.
Feb 11, 2011
Fish May Save From Blindness
It was found out how fish omega-3 fatty acids may protect against retinal lesions - retinopathy.
Retinopathy provokes a rapid increase in the retina of a blood vessels rete.
As established earlier by scientists from Boston Children's Hospital under the guidance of an ophthalmologist Lois Smith, when mice were fed with a high content of omega-3 fatty acids, the abnormal growth of blood vessels in the retina is slowed down by 50%. In addition, these healthy fats reduce the degree of ocular inflammation. It was found that contained in fish oils have another defense mechanism - they can directly regulate the growth of blood vessels, keeping their abnormal growth.
Scientists managed to identify the components of omega-3 fatty acids (4-HDHA), which provided a beneficial effect on the mice, as well as the enzyme responsible for its production (5-lipoxygenase or 5-LOX).
At the same time, scientists have shown that drugs such as aspirin, belonging to the class of inhibitors of the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) does not interfere with this process. In experiments it was shown that cyclooxygenase enzymes are not involved in the decay of the omega- 3 fatty acids, and thus aspirin, which is taken by millions of people around the world, does not diminish the beneficial properties of omega-3 fatty acids.
Above all it is worth noting that the treatment of retinopathy with omega-3 fatty acids may also prove cost-effective. Month course of treatment drugs on the basis of omega-3 fatty acids would cost about $ 10, whereas treatment with drugs aimed at suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF drugs), such as Lucentis, pegaptanib (Macugen, Eyetech) and Avastin, Genentech, will cost approximately $ 4.000 per month.
Feb 10, 2011
The method developed in Spain can greatly accelerate the healing process of patients after stroke.
Stroke, as well as head trauma, leads to excessive accumulation in the brain of a particular substance glutamate. In this case, the higher the level of glutamate, the worse the patient's healing process is.
To solve this problem the doctors are trying for a long time, but until recently effective drugs that help restore brain function after trauma, did not exist. The main difficulty was that most of the drugs could not overcome the blood-brain barrier to penetration into the brain of large molecules and blood cells. Those drugs, which nevertheless succeeded in this, often worked not as effectively as doctors would like to.
Hope for the patience who suffered from stroke gave the scientists from Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel. Professor, Department of Neurobiology Vivian I. Teichberg in 2003 first showed that a high concentration of glutamate in the brain can be reduced by lowering the level of glutamate in the blood. The professor suggested that because of the concentration of this amino acid difference will be "washed out" of the brain. A lower its level in the blood by using the natural enzyme glutamate-oxaloacetate transminase (GOT).
Correctness of the theory Teichberg was recently confirmed by the laboratory staff of Professor Jose Castillo at the University of Santiago de Compostela in Spain. In his studies, they demonstrated that by injection oxaloacetate it is possible to reduce the level of glutamate in blood and in the exposed area of the brain. The researchers, led by Francesco Campos conducted experiments on mice that had brain lesions characteristic of stroke. Uses of enzyme significantly reduced both cell death and the swelling that occurs in stroke.
This technique may help treat stroke and suffering from other diseases, since glutamate accumulates in the brain and in Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, glaucoma, Charcot disease, and brain tumors. Therefore, there is a hope that drugs that reduce the concentration of glutamate will be widely used.
Feb 9, 2011
Salmonella bacteria can be used as a measure to combat viruses.
It turns out that a dangerous salmonella bacteria, which causes disorder of the gastrointestinal tract may be a remedy. Scientists "reprogrammed" salmonella and included several enzymes, resulting in the bacterium was able to cure some viral diseases. Salmonella is one of the major causative agents of salmonellosis. The disease develops in approximately 48 hours after the bacteria enter the body and can last from 4 to 7 days. Some strains of salmonella can be causative agents of typhoid fever.
Salmonella has attracted attention for its ability to survive in the digestive tract of men. Researchers from the University of California at Berkeley write, because of this "vitality" Salmonella has an excellent "delivery vehicle" into the cells of enzymes that can stop viruses.
Using this technique, scientists have cured mice from cytomegalovirus infection. Experience has shown that when rodents in the control group who did not receive treatment died within 25 days after infection, the animals that are added to foods modified strains of Salmonella, were alive and after 50 days after infection. Drug on the basis of salmonella allowed to reduce the amount of virus in mice of 400-600 times.
Importantly, the drug on the basis of salmonella can be administered not by injection, but orally. The developers of this innovative technique ate the virologist Yong Feng Liu and bacteriologist Wei Liu Sung from the University of California at Berkeley, USA.
- Usually for creating vaccines for diseases such as polio or smallpox used live, inactivated viruses, which strengthens the immune system. But this is the first time when are created effective means of viral infection on the basis of the bacteria - said the professor, University of California at Berkeley F. Liu.
- This is the first medicine for a viral infection, which can be ingested through the mouth, which is much easier shots - emphasizes Liu. - Moreover, the already established Salmonella strains with reduced virulence. Their safety for human body has already been proved and they are already used to produce vaccines against typhoid fever.
Scientists hope that in the future with Salmonella can win and some forms of cancer, wrote Sciencedaily.
Feb 8, 2011
A Virtual Obesity
The new device will help all who want to feel on itself, what it means to be overweight.
The volunteers put on a special monitor on their head, though you can see simulated by computer graphics own body with hanging belly. Include both located on belt special sensors that allow you to feel the weight of fat.
Previously, developers had already submitted a similar device which made people believe that they have had one more virtual hand, or even give the man a chance to feel like a woman.
These feelings are achieved by pressure sensors on a real hand or region of the body, which is synchronized with the image on the screen.
Trials, lasting more than a decade have shown that to make people believe that he had the artificial arm, enough to hide from view the real hand and synchronize it with tactile touch, showed on the screen.
To study people's perceptions of their bodies Mel Slater, a scientist at the University of Barcelona and University College London and colleagues developed a special suit and goggles for immersion in virtual reality, and tested their ability by 22 volunteers. Participants must have been using a cane to palpate their abdomen, which was presented on the screen in a much larger size. Then the volunteers were asked to pat his stomach to the music, and a huge virtual body on the screen also swayed by touch.
All testees reported that they could very real feel to try a new body, which had more than their present, says Physorg.
- Although the results were expected, never ceases to amaze just how our brains are fooled easily allows for changes in body size, - says the author of the experiment.
Suit for virtual reality can be used in cognitive therapy for treating disorders of perception of own body, as well as for the treatment of obesity. Obese person can be just as well to get to feel thin. Feeling through virtual reality, as a healthy diet can improve the appearance, obese people will have a strong incentive to change their dietary habits, in reality, says a researcher.
Feb 7, 2011
Vegetarianism Is Dangerous For The Heart
Vegetarians, strictly following the principle of a complete rejection of meat and all animal products are at increased risk of blood clots and atherosclerosis.
Total rejection of meat leads to the defeat of the arteries and, consequently, to a stroke or heart attack. Such a conclusion was made by U.S. researchers after studying dozens of scientific publications issued over the past 30 years devoted to issues of vegetarianism and biochemistry.
The study's author, Professor Li Duo notes that, although everyone knows that meat-eaters exposed to multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease, a radical rejection of animal fat is dangerous for heart health.
The diet of radical vegetarians missing some essential nutrients such as iron, zinc, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acids. If a balanced vegetarian diet can still provide the body with sufficient protein, fat and provide a flow of fatty acids with only one plant foods can not. As a result, opponents of meat have elevated levels of homocysteine and low levels of HDL or "good" cholesterol. Both are a risk factor for heart disease.
Scientists have concluded that vegetarians should include in your diet dietary omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12. This will help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, writes MedicalNewstToday.
Omega-3 fatty acids found in salmon and other fatty fish, as well as in nuts. Vitamin B12 is found in seafood, eggs and fortified milk. These elements are often part of many food additives.
Feb 4, 2011
Mystery Of Nicotine Dependence Unravelled
Scientists have learned how to reduce the susceptibility of the brain to nicotine. A new study has shown that acting on specific receptors in the brain responsible for perception of nicotine it is possible to control the craving for this drug.
Nicotine - is the main component of tobacco smoke that causes addiction. Once in the brain, this substance activates specific proteins (receptors), consisting of 3 elements. Study of the role of one of the elements of the receptor (±5 * nAChRs) in regulating the consumption of nicotine was devoted to the study of scientists from the The Scripps Research Institute. It was found during research conducted by Professor Paul Kenny, penetrating into the brain, nicotine activates the nicotinic receptors with an element of ±5, causing the so-called negative response, which suppresses the desire to consume more nicotine.
Smoking - one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Each year, victims of this habit are 5 million people. In 90% of deaths from lung cancer is caused by smoking. In 60% of nicotine dependence has genetic roots.
However, as shown by experiments on mice, cut-off element with ±5 receptor leads to the fact that rodents to consume nicotine in much larger quantities than normal mice. To confirm this association, researchers with a special study of the virus recovered receptor element, after which the nicotine intake returned to normal.
Scientists have repeated the experiments on rats and obtained similar results. In rats with the virus have been disconnected elements ±5 receptor, after which the rodents were more actively consume nicotine in high doses. Animals as the control group were more temperate.
- We did not expect the pedestrian area of the brain and other structures, in which he appears to play a less significant role in controlling the desire to consume nicotine, - said one of the authors of the study Kristi Fowler (Christie Fowler). - Apparently, when the nicotine concentration reaches a certain level, the leash is activated. But if this structure is not working properly, it is necessary to increase the dose of nicotine.
Scientists hope this discovery will help smokers get off the habit. Already under development a new drug, amplifies the signals of the element receptor ±5 * nAChR, which will thereby reduce their dependence on nicotine.
Feb 3, 2011
Probiotics Will Cure Intestines
Enriched with probiotics dairy products can be not only a means of enhancing immunity, but also an effective remedy to fight bowel disease.
Researchers from Northwestern University in the U.S. have shown that healthful bacteria, which are abundant in yogurt and cheese can defeat such chronic diseases as Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and even help with colon cancer.
Geneticists modified lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus, removing only one gene. Products with the newly derived lactic acid bacillus, scientists fed mice suffering from various forms of colitis. After receiving over 13 days obtained in the laboratory strains of probiotics in rodents by 95% to stop the development of the disease, and mice almost completely recovered from an inflammation of the intestine.
This success in genetic engineering will help to develop entirely new approaches to treatment of autoimmune intestinal diseases, including irritable bowel syndrome and colon cancer, say scientists.
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis - two chronic relapsing disease in which chronic inflammation of the tissues interferes with the normal functioning of the intestinal tract. Existing drugs can not completely rid the patients of these diseases.
Perhaps in the near future, such patients can be cured completely without drugs, simply include in their diet of foods enriched with probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, wrote Sciencedaily.
Genetically modified lactic acid bacteria getting into the digestive tract play a role of "peacekeepers", holding overexcited cells of the immune system from attacking on our own intestines. Probiotics are mobilizing messengers immune cells - dendritic cells - the production of other functional immune cells that balance the systemic inflammation.
In the near future, scientists plan to conduct clinical trials of a new form of Lactobacillus acidophilus, said study author Mansour Mohamadzadeh.
Feb 2, 2011
Microchip Will Warn Of A Heart Attack
Scientists have created a microchip capable to determine the risk of the patient's terminal illness by saliva.
Currently are being tested just 6 versions of programmable bionanochip (PBNC), configured to detect the patients symptoms of cardiovascular disease, cancer, ovarian, prostate, oral cavity, as well as the identification of drug dependence. In development are also the microchips that identify a person with HIV / AIDS and other diseases.
Created by staff at Rice University programmable bionanochip allows for the necessary medical tests on various parameters quickly and painlessly. Moreover, importantly, with the mass production of a new biosensor, significantly reduce the cost of common test today.
Device maker, Professor John McDevitt from Rice University details the microchip to determine the risk of heart attack.
- Often, heart diseases manifest themselves only when they kill a person - says McDevitt.
- With this device you can save one's life, and significantly reduce time and cost of treatment for those suffering from cardiovascular diseases.
Programmable bionanochip analyzes the composition of saliva, determining the presence of biomarkers characteristic of cardiovascular disease.
During a heart attack is important for an hour to open a blocked vessel, which allows to save heart muscle and increases the chances of patient survival. However, only half of patients after a heart attack manages to do an electrocardiogram in the first minutes after the attack. Others also have to pass a series of laboratory tests that can take up to 12 hours.
Developing an electronic sensor is capable to give results within 20 minutes. Clinicians, having that information, can find a more effective treatment strategy.
- Programmable bionanochip combines medical instruments and micro-electronic device - says McDevitt. - He has all chances to make the information revolution in medical practice, while substantially lowering the cost of treatment. I like to think of it as a medical iPhone, which will change the appearance and the "game's rules."
According to the developer, bionanochips and readers of this information they may soon appear in hospitals, dentists' offices, pharmacies and clinics around the world, according to Physorg.
Feb 1, 2011
How Does Broccoli Protect Against Cancer?
Scientists have explained in terms of Biochemistry the ability of cauliflower and other vegetables of this subspecies to detect and correct a defective gene that causes cancer.
In previous experiments, scientists have proved that the substance isothiocyanide (or ITC), which are found in cauliflower, broccoli, watercress and other cruciferous vegetables can stop the growth of cancerous tumors. However, how these substances can counteract the cancer still remained a mystery. And without understanding this mechanism it is not possible to improve the methods of fighting cancer.
Study leader Dr. Fung-Lung Chung and colleagues found that the gene p53, tumor suppressor, it turns out, plays a key role in maintaining healthy cells, suppressing their abnormal growth, which occurs in case of cancer. Mutated p53 gene does not provide protection, because of what occurs in about 50% of all tumors in humans. Isothiocyanides same effect on these genes, the researchers found.
Scientists have studied the effects of some naturally occurring isothiocyanides on cancer cells of various neoplasms - tumors of the lung, breast and colon - as with the defective gene that suppresses tumor, and without it. As a result, the researchers found that isothiocyanides can eliminate defective protein gene p53, without affecting the normal one, reports Science Daily.
Drugs based on natural or artificially synthesized isothiocyanides could improve the effectiveness of existing cancer treatments or lead to the development of new approaches to treatment and prevention of cancer.
Jan 31, 2011
Scientists from Southwestern Medical Center University of University of Texas - UT believe that by eliminating the effect of certain hormone type 1 diabetes can be moved into the form of asymptomatic, not dependent on insulin disorder.
Results obtained and held on mice suggest that insulin is completely unnecessary and its absence does not lead to diabetes or any other anomalies, if suppressed by the action of glucagon. Produced by the pancreas hormone, glucagon prevents low blood sugar in the blood of healthy individuals and increases its level in type 1 diabetes.
"We all tend to think that insulin - a hormone Almighty, without which life is impossible, but it's not" - said Dr. Roger Unger, professor of internal medicine and senior author of the article published in the journal Diabetes. "If diabetes is defined as the recovery to normal glucose homeostasis, whereas our method can probably be regarded as very close to the means of "healing".
Insulin is the gold standard of treatment of type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes) since its opening in 1922. But only the regulation of diabetes with insulin, even optimal, can not restore normal glucose tolerance. New evidence suggests that the restoration of glucose tolerance to normal achieved the elimination of glucagon.
Typically, glucagon is released when a low level of blood glucose, or sugar level. In case of insulin deficiency, however, glucagon levels are excessively high, which makes the liver secretes into the blood stream an additional amount of glucose. This action is opposite to the action of insulin, which stimulates the removal of sugar from the blood cells in the body.
With type 1 diabetes, which affects about 1 million people in the U.S. alone, kills insulin-producing 'islet' cells of the pancreas. As a countermeasure patients must take insulin several times a day to digest the sugar in the blood, regulate its levels and prevent diabetic coma. They must also adhere strictly restricted diet.
Scientists have studied how genetically modified mice with the absence of glucagon receptors respond to the oral test for glucose tolerance. Test that can be used to diagnose diabetes, gestational diabetes (diabetes of pregnancy) and pre-diabetes, evaluates the body's ability to metabolize or break down, which is in the blood glucose.
Jan 28, 2011
Female Sexual Dysfunction
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder affects roughly 1 in 10 women and is the most common sexual dysfunction among women of all ages. It is difficult to diagnose because a woman's sex drive varies from person to person. And the factors causing a lowered sex drive can range from psychological to biological. But some women underestimate what an important role sexual health plays in their overall health. And if the lack of desire becomes distressing in any way or interferes with her overall quality of life, she may have hypoactive sexual desire disorder.
Many women suffer in silence and some even feel that a decline in sexual desire is a normal part of aging. According to Sheryl A. Kingsberg, PhD, a clinical psychologist and Professor in the Department of Reproductive Biology at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in Cleveland, Ohio: "Women should not be expected to accept a distressing loss of sexual desire any more than they should be expected to simply accept arthritis, acid reflux, or any other condition often associated with aging."
Unfortunately, hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women is not as well recognized as erectile dysfunction in men. There are many medications available for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, but today there are no US FDA approved medications for women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. "The problem is further compounded by a lack of attention and interest in women's sexual satisfaction in many cultures," says Kingsberg. And as a result, "some women may feel that it is not appropriate to seek help for a sexual problem."
Jan 27, 2011
Cataract And Antidepressants
Ophthalmologists around the world are actively engaged in research to identify causes and mechanisms of development of serious eye disease - cataract. Along with age-related changes and eye injury risk factor was found prolonged use of certain drugs. However, thorough research to determine the precise relationship between these phenomena has not yet been conducted.
Recently, Canadian researchers from the University of British Columbia, Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute and McGill University decided to determine exactly how to influence the development of cataracts are the strongest tools such as antidepressants. They were conducted extensive research with the participation of two hundred thousand residents of Quebec at the age of 65.
The results of this study indicate that the factors that provoke this disease should be classified as taking certain antidepressants class of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which proved to be provoking a cataract, on average, within two years.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been released in the mid-80's. Today they are the most demanded in the treatment of depression. When taking they do not need to adhere to special diets. To reduce the risk of side effects may be altered dose or assigned to another antidepressant.
The data obtained showed that the risk is high in case of treatment with certain drugs. For example, intake of fluvoxamine (Luvoksa) increases the possibility of developing cataracts by more than 50%, venlafaxine (Effexor) - 34%. At the same time, the connection between the development of cataracts and fluoxetine (Prozac), citalopram (Celecs), sertraline (Zoloft) was not detected. In general, in patients taking antidepressants cataract was diagnosed 15% more likely than those who did not take them.
Jan 26, 2011
Asthma And Depression
Medicine does not know the exact cause of depression while suffering from asthma, but it is known how asthma affects the mental state. Asthma - is a chronic inflammatory disease. Emerging inflammation in the body interconnects with the brain activity, causing neural changes to occur. This, in turn, can affect mood and behavior and cause depression. Signs of such a state are: depressed mood, lethargy, loss of appetite.
Medical research published in the journal Neuroimage, examines the relationship between depression and asthma. The results show: when depression releases, asthma, calms down. In fact, the disappearance of depression is associated with decreased use of drugs for asthma.
Asthma, which is not treated, does not give people to be active. Inactivity with difficulty breathing creates a lot of implications for both physical and mental health. Here are some of them:
* Social isolation * Deep Depression * Poor control of the disease * Progression of asthma
Depression during asthma may be due to drug use. Most of them contain hormones, as it directly affects mood. A person becomes irritable, quick-tempered, restless. This effect is quite likely when using an inhaler and an anti-inflammatory tablets, which are commonly used in the treatment of asthma.
Jan 25, 2011
Blueberries Help Reducing The Blood Pressure
Just a couple of servings of blueberries a week will reduce the risk of hypertension by 10%.
Blueberries have unique properties. Thanks to the high content of antioxidants, they are able to normalize blood pressure. Especially useful in this respect is part of the flavonoid anthocyanin berries.
In the middle portion of blueberries, currants or red orange juice contains a considerable amount of anthocyanins (> 500 mg). Therefore, it is enough to include in your diet blueberry or black currant, to get protection from the development of hypertension, researchers found.
As it was established scientists from the Harvard School of Public Health, these berries are especially useful for those whose age is approaching 60. Inclusion in the diet of two or more servings of blueberries a week can help reduce the risk of developing hypertension by 10%.
As noted by the study's author, Eric Rima, the scientists collected data on the benefits of anthocyanins are important because these biologically active substances found in the most popular fruits and berries.
On their study the authors tell on the pages of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
Jan 21, 2011
A special cleansing diet will help your body get rid of toxins and impurities - sounds good, right? In any case, the consumption of fruits and vegetables only positivelly effects the body, and the restriction of meat gives a sense of lightness.
The idea of a special diet is able to save the human organism from the attack of harmful substances was born out of excessive concern that toxins are constantly bombarding our bodies. But for a start We will understand - what toxins. These are the substances with potentially harmful effects. In the human body they can get from many foods, such as:
* Alcohol * Caffeine * Fruits and vegetables grown using chemicals and pesticides * Smog and other harmful substances in the air * Artificial sweeteners * Sugar * And even water
The truth is that the toxins cause problems if you occupy the body on all fronts - be contained in the digestive tract, lymph, gastrointestinal system, skin and hair. Then you are guaranteed to fatigue, headaches, nausea, and a wide range of chronic diseases.
What is a cleansing diet?
Detox diets are designed to help the body rid itself of toxins. The first step - to stop consuming certain kind of products. You can start, for example, a liquid diet for one or two days. On the fourth and fifth day, add to your diet brown rice, fruits and cooked only for a couple of vegetables. At the end, allow yourself to red meat, eggs and sweets.
In general, the detox diet is based on the consumption of organic products and a large volume of liquid. And that's about alcohol, caffeine, sturdy case, fat, flour and fried to forget.
Here are some popular detox diets:
* Diet for treatment of liver * Diet for Weight Loss * Grape Diet * A diet based on consumption of raw vegetables * Lemonade diet
Jan 20, 2011
Estrogen and asthma
Women suffer from asthma more often than men. Features of bronchial asthma in women are due, in fact, to their gender. In other words, the presence of the female hormone - estrogen. And, therefore, affect these features on a purely women's affairs - pregnancy, menstruation and menopause.
Bronchial asthma is an additional concern for women. In addition to continuous monitoring of exposure to allergens (pollen, dust, mold), which activate the disease, our own female hormone - estrogen, also did not come to our aid - its fluctuations can cause complication breathing, shortness of breath. All this, of course, very annoying and troublesome, but give the disease to take over a top - is also out.
Estrogen and asthma
Actually, estrogen is not "guilty" that the ladies breathe harder. Its level is to be blamed, or more precisely - fluctuations of the level. Stabilize the level of estrogen, can take control of asthma.
Women living with bronchial asthma know that this disease has seasonal exacerbation of their symptoms and know how to pick up signals of an impending revival of the disease. But also to their own menstrual cycle, they must be very careful, because asthma is not only the seasonal cycle, but this - an irregular cycle increases the risk of asthmatic symptoms. And with the regular cycle of hormones "walks" pretty much: just before the monthly level of estrogen is low, and this may lead to exacerbation of asthmatic conditions.
Most questions and concerns arouses asthma, when it comes to pregnancy. Doctors say that the impact of asthma during pregnancy is completely different, with women from this perspective can be divided into three roughly equal groups: one-third of women are improved, a third - may worsen, and even a third condition is stabilized or remain the same. Experts explain this balance a number of factors, most important of which is, of course, hormones.
It was also noted that asthma may depend on the gestation period. Most women have an exacerbation of disease are observed between 12 and 24 weeks. And at the same time, many report significant improvement in disease in the last 4 weeks before delivery.
Jan 19, 2011
Carbohydrates Provoke Heart Disease In Women
Eating carbohydrate-rich foods increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in women.
And, as Italian scientists have found, carbohydrates are not so harmful for men in comparison with the fair sex.
Italian scientists conducted an experiment that lasted eight years, during which they monitored the health of more than 15,000 men and 32,000 women. Researchers have drawn attention not only on the amount of carbohydrates consumed, but rather on their glycemic index.
As a result, scientists have found that the women who consumed large amount of carbs with high glycemic index twice as likely to suffer from cardiovascular diseases. As experts explain, carbohydrates with high glycemic index contribute to increased blood concentrations of fatty acids and lower levels of "good" cholesterol.
In this case, the process of raising blood glucose levels affect hormones: Female - estrogen - accelerates this process, and male - androgen - slows it down. That's why foods high glycemic index are especially dangerous for women, while in men this effect is not observed.
Scientists from the National Cancer Institute of Italy also note that the negative effects on the cardiovascular system has frequent consumption of foods with just a high glycemic index, but not carbohydrates in general. Therefore, the fair sex should closely monitor the sugar content in foods and avoid foods with added sugar too much.
The results of the research were published in the journal Archives of Internal Medicine.
Jan 18, 2011
Coffee May Prevent From Diabetes
Scientists have shown that drinking a few cups of coffee a day protects against type 2 diabetes.
Specialists from the University of California, deciphered the molecular mechanism by which coffee can protect against diabetes. The leading role plays a special protein that carries the name: sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). It regulates the concentration in the body of sex hormones, estrogen and testosterone, and has a significant influence on the development of type 2 diabetes.
Previous studies have shown that there is an inverse relationship between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes. That is, the more coffee drunk, the less risk of developing diabetes. It was believed that caffeine increases the body's tolerance to glucose by increasing its metabolism and increase insulin resistance.
However, new research of American scientists has shown that caffeine has no direct effect on the metabolism of sugar and acts through an intermediary. Specialists surveyed 40,000 women, of whom 359 were diabetic patients, and found that coffee consumption significantly increases the content of SHBG. In addition, it was found that patients who drank at least 4 cups of coffee daily, up to 56% less likely to develop diabetes than those who do not drink this beverage.
In this case, decaffeinated coffee had no significant effect either on the level of SHBG in the blood, not the probability of developing diabetes.
Jan 14, 2011
Stress Enhances Memory
Scientists have found that stressful situations help the process of remembering.
An international team of researchers decided to test this theory on mice. Scientists from the Czech Republic and the United States taught mice to distinguish between left and right turn at the T-maze.
Further laboratory rodents were divided into two groups. For one group created a stressful situation, placing the animal in a container with water from which they had chosen to swim. Mice from the other group was placed in a container partially filled with water, and rodents do not have to resort to swimming.
After some time the mice again forced to walk the labyrinth. It was found that animals from the first group who experienced severe stress, better orientation in the T-maze compared with animals from another group.
According to researchers, stress is the beginning of the process of memories reconsolidation, activating memories and returning them to the state when the transition from short-term memory into long-form has not yet been completed.
Memory again converted into long-form due to the influence of stress hormones. Such a scheme called non-contextual activation of memory.
Researchers hope to use the discovery in the treatment of PTSD.
The results of the study were reported in journal Public Library of Science.
Jan 13, 2011
Green Tea Protects Against Senile Sclerosis
Green tea may be effective in preventing age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease.
British scientists are engaged in clarifying beneficial properties of green tea. For research by specialists from the University of Newcastle have used green tea extract, as well as a special technology that simulates the human digestive system. To their surprise, researchers found that more than 30 active ingredients of green tea - polyphenols (polyphenols) - retains its activity even after passing the digestive process.
Scientists have continued to experience and test the effectiveness of the extract to the digestion process on laboratoric mice. Scientists were interested in its ability to protect nerve cells from the toxic effects of certain compounds and proteins that provoke the development of dementia. It was found that green tea extract twice reduced the amount of protein beta-amyloid, which leads to Alzheimer's disease.
As study authors note, the assumption that the polyphenols in green tea help for thinking processes was confirmed. Especially useful poliferol flavanols contained in the black and green tea. Flavonols have neuroprotective properties and protect brain cells.
In addition, regular consumption of green tea can prevent cancer, because the substances contained in this beverage, significantly slow down the division of cancer cells.
On the research of scientists from Newcastle told the magazine Phytomedicine.
Jan 12, 2011
Vitamin B Protects Against Cancer
The high concentration of vitamin B6 and methionine reduces the risk of lung cancer.
It is known that deficiency of vitamin B6 increases the possibility of DNA damage and subsequent gene mutations. Consequently, doctors have suggested it may play an important role in the resistance of the organism develop into cancer. Basically it is a substance enters the body with food: it is found in meat, potatoes, fish and integral grains.
In this regard, scientists have proposed using the diet reduce the risk of malignant tumors. The team of scientific experts from the International Agency for Research on Cancer under the leadership of Paul Brennan (Paul Brennan) studied the vitamin B6 and the amino acid methionine in blood samples from 385,747 people who participated in the European prospective study of communications Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC ). Materials for the study were collected in the period from 1992 to 2000. By 2006, lung cancer was diagnosed in 899 participants.
Analysis of the information collected showed that the participants had lower probability to become ill with high levels of vitamin B6. A similar relationship observed between cancer and blood levels of methionine - essential amino acid supplied to the diet. It is interesting that these results are a fact of smoking party has no effect. All among the respondents with the highest levels of methionine and vitamin B6, 129 people fell ill, while in the group with a low content of these substances in the blood of lung cancer struck 408 people.
Nevertheless, this does not prove that vitamin B6 may directly protect against disease. Researchers believe that the levels of nutrients could be higher for people who prefer healthy food, and this in itself could help reduce the risk. Before you can surely be said that an increase in vitamin B6 in the diet may reduce the risk of lung cancer, and also to understand how this happens, further studies are needed. Also need to determine the optimal levels of vitamin B6. But researchers stress that no vitamins can not compensate the harm that smoking causes to health.
Jan 11, 2011
Protect Yourself Against Asthma
German scientists claim that job stress contributes to the development of asthma.
Survey of more than 5000 people aged 40 to 65 years revealed a relationship between the nervous atmosphere in the workplace and the subsequent development of allergic disease. Dr. Adrian Loerbroks and his colleagues at the University of Heidelberg in Germany, conducted a survey concerning health status, lifestyle and working people in the country. To assess the level of stress at work in the questionnaire included questions about how much stress a person feels in the workplace, as is often thought occurs to him about the affairs at the end of the day, how tired he is and how often feels unable to perform their professional duties.
As shown by clinical observations, lasting an average of 8.5 years, those who scored the most points - that is experiencing the most severe stress - most others were suffering from asthma at the beginning of the experiment, and the probability of its development during the period of observation they had two times higher. Speaking of risk, the researchers took into account other factors such as body weight, physical activity, smoking and the presence of asthma in the family.
Scientists also note that the difference in lifestyles of study participants had no impact on morbidity and work stress. The researchers attributed this to changes in the immune and hormonal system, reinforcing the inflammatory reaction of the airways in response to external irritant.
The absolute risk is relatively small - for the entire period of observation asthma was diagnosed in only 2% of employees. Nevertheless, this scientific paper, published in the journal Allergy, became the first in the history of medicine, which find out the effect of labor stress on the incidence of asthma.
Jan 10, 2011
The Secret Of Healthy Aging Revealed
Scientists have published data on what factors help people maintain health in old age.
Specialists of the Institute of Healthy Aging in New Jersey, USA, led by Dr. Rachel Pruchno conducted the study, which was attended by more than five and a half thousand elderly people. The health status of participants (age ranged from 50 to 74 years) was assessed from two perspectives: objective and subjective. Objective view took into account the illnesses of elderly from a medical point of view, and subjective data was believed in that way as the participants evaluated their health. Such an assessment has on a person's life no less impact than objectively observable disease.
Data analysis showed that the most important for maintaining health in old age had levels of education, and most strongly reduced the chances of finding a healthy old age, deferred oncologic diseases. In addition, the chances of health keeping were higher among those who showed moderation in alcohol consumption, was married, had a steady job and was involved in any volunteer work.
But scientists were not satisfied with only one study of modern living conditions of study participants, but also analyzed the data on their young. It turned out that these factors are more important to 50 years, though in old age they may to some extent mitigate the adverse effect of the earlier years of life.
- Aging - is a process of the whole life - says doctor Pruchno. - So, what anility you will meew depends on what you are doing right now.
The results of the study can be found in the journal "The Gerontologist".
Jan 5, 2011
Lose Weight Without Exercises
Researchers found that the body can burn fat by raising body temperature after eating.
The survey, conducted by an international team of scientists, show that the enzyme PI3-kinase has the ability to raise body temperature in response to the receipt of food high in fat. In this way the body burns calories without exercising.
To study the effect of this enzyme in the metabolism scientists have deduced variation mice the level of PI3-kinazs in the brain was reduced. In the experiment, the mice were kept on a diet with high fat content, as well as a group of normal mice with normal levels of the enzyme. Modified mice, in contrast to the usual, quickly gained weight, and, importantly, not because of less moving or eating more. Just in normal mice the influence of PI3-kinase activated the cells of brown adipose tissue responsible for the production of heat.
Adipose tissue is divided into two types: white and brown. Usually when people talk about fat, they mean precisely the white variety. It was she who performs the functions of storing nutrients for a rainy day. Brown also designed fabric, mainly in order to warm the body by burning contained in its cells fatty pellets. In adults, very little brown adipose tissue, so it is rarely mentioned except in special literature.
In this regard, is not yet known how apply this knowledge to human physiology, which, unlike mice, brown adipose tissue is fairly small. Nevertheless, the author of the survey, professor Joel Elmkvist from the University of Texas believes that there is prospects for further research in this area.
- Preliminary research suggests that the human body also increases the temperature when the food arrives too much energy. Perhaps we can find a way to make the body lose weight by simply burning the extra calories - he says.
Jan 3, 2011
Cold Winter Triggers Heart Attack
British scientists have found that cold spell increases the risk of myocardial infarction.
Reducing the ambient temperature affects the work of the heart of older people, especially coronary heart disease. The high temperature does not cause heart muscle damage as evident.
The study was conducted researchers at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK). Scientists compared the number of patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of myocardial infarction, and average daytime temperatures for 2003-2006. During the three-year period across England with the disease have been hospitalized about 84 thousand people, that is, on average, about 60 patients a day. After taking into account additional factors such as air pollution and the activity of viral infections in the data period of the year, it was found that the decrease in temperature increases the number of myocardial infarctions. The statistical methods allowed scientists to suggest that the decrease in temperature during one day by just 1°C will cause an average of 200 cases of myocardial infarction.
It is interesting that to protect against heart attack helped aspirin. Patients who took the drug experienced fewer heart attacks when the temperature of the environment.
Researchers have found another important point. Most sensitive to temperature changes were more elderly people and patients with coronary heart disease, which is considered a harbinger of a heart attack.
The head of the study, Dr. Krishan Baskaran attaches great importance to the data obtained. Of particular importance, they acquire in the current conditions of global climate change, where in some areas of the globe is marked not only warming but cooling.
Dec 30, 2010
The Vaccine Against Obesity?
The unique vaccine will help to lose weight in two sizes in just 6 months.
Unique tool for losing weight was recently introduced by Novo Nordisk company. Employees of pharmaceutical companies have proposed to use for the treatment of obesity the known drug for diabetes Liraglutide.
This hormonal drug is introduced by injection. Liraglutide suppresses appetite by acting on the brain and stop ordering in food intake. In addition, the drug can lower blood pressure, prevent diabetes and improve the level of "good" cholesterol.
The study, which was attended by over 550 people suffering from obesity, showed that the tool helped the subjects lose 2 times more pounds than the other anti-obesity drug Orlistat. Currently, vaccination against obesity is a large-scale trials involving 5000 people. Its results will be known in 2013, after which the treatment may be available for sale.
Treatment of obesity with Liraglutide does not lead to repeated weight gain. In addition to all the benefits of the drug has another one - it can lift the mood, not least the people limit themselves in power.
According to experts, the miracle vaccine will eliminate the need to set the tires, do a resection of the stomach or implant cylinder to suppress excessive appetite.
For more information about the development of scientists, please visit Novo Nordisk company' site.
Dec 29, 2010
Overweight Men Die Earlier
Swedish scientists have once again confirmed the well known fact that excess weight and health are incompatible.
Previously it was thought that middle-aged men are overweight, whose life is not weighed down with so-called metabolic syndrome, the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and stroke is not higher than those whose weight is not exceeded.
However, having surveyed more than 1700 men aged about 30 years, each of whom were overweight or obese, Dr. Johan Arnlov with colleagues from the University of Uppsala (Sweden) have proven that even in the absence of metabolic syndrome risk of heart attack or stroke in obese representatives strong sex is still higher. As was established during the study, among those whose weight exceeds the norm, the probability of occurrence of these life-threatening diseases has increased to 52%, and obesity in the testees increased the risk by 2 times.
- Our study proves the fallacy of the assertion that the presence of overweight and obesity "has no negative impact on health" in the absence of the patient's metabolic syndrome - said Johan Arnlov.
However, researchers emphasized that metabolic syndrome threatens public health even in men with normal weight. Risk of developing heart disease, stroke and related diseases increased by 63%.
As for the male patients with a history of "whole bunch" - overweight, obesity and metabolic syndrome, they are at greatest risk, because it is this group of patients heart disease and stroke in 2.5 times more likely to end fatal. That's why getting rid of extra pounds should be for men a "priority target".
In the future the researchers plan to continue to examine the relationship between obesity, metabolic syndrome and related diseases in women.
Dec 28, 2010
Dairy Products Can Prevent From Diabetes
American scientists have found that part of the special milk fatty acid can protect against type II diabetes.
Employees of the Medical School of Harvard University have studied the effect of dairy products on the health of the cardiovascular system. Large-scale study, which was attended by about 4 000 people, lasted 20 years.
As a result scientists have found that milk, cottage cheese, yogurt and cheese have invaluable benefit to human organism, thanks to their content of trans-palmitoleic acid, which in general can reduce the risk of diabetes and metabolic disorders by 60%. The higher the level of trans-palmitoleic acid in the blood of study participants was, the better were indicators such as cholesterol, insulin and blood markers of inflammation.
Typically, nutritionists recommend limiting consumption of fatty dairy products, but the findings raise questions about the validity of this approach, because the trans-palmitoleic acid, contribute to the improvement of metabolism, it is contained in dairy fats. According to researchers, this component of milk fat may act similarly produced in the body of cis-palmitoleic acid, which effectively treats the development of diabetes.
The future plans of scientists - is to find out whether the trans-palmitoleic acid and preparations based on it to help people who already have developed type II diabetes.
On the research of scientists wrote the journal Annals of Internal Medicine.
Dec 27, 2010
Proper Diet Protects Against Cancer
American researchers have proven that people who use vitamin K reduced the risk of developing cancer of the lymphatic system.
Physicians from the Mayo Clinic Cancer Center in Minnesota (USA) studied the relationship between diet and the possibility of developing cancer. They paid particular attention to vitamin K - this fat-soluble components contained mainly in green vegetables such as onions, lettuce and spinach.
Scientists paid attention to this due to the fact that in recent years there is evidence of new properties of this substance. In particular, the fact that this vitamin, which is considered an important factor in blood clotting, is also able to suppress the activity of inflammatory cytokines associated with the development of lymphomas and cell death.
Lymphoma - a group of diseases of lymphatic tissue, characterized by an increase in lymph node and / or lesions of various organs, where occurs the uncontrolled accumulation of "tumor" of lymphocytes.
In the experiment were involved more than one and a half thousand, 600 of them are diagnosed with lymphoma. They were asked to complete questionnaires according to which testers evaluated the consumption of more than 120 types of products and nutritional supplements in the past two years. Through these questionnaires it was determined intake of vitamin C. It was found that the risk of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was lower by almost half among those who received more than 108 micrograms of vitamin K per day compared to used it less than 39 micrograms.
It is interesting to note that in the result was determined the difference between obtaining a substance from natural foods and from supplements. It was found that dietary supplements containing this vitamin, although reduced the risk of lymphomas, but only to a certain level. Further increase of the dose in food supplements probability of occurrence of the disease was not reduced, that is, an artificial analog loses effectiveness natural.
Dec 24, 2010
Hair Restoration Leads To Impotence
Consumption of popular drugs for baldness treatment may reduce the production of sperm and worsen erection.
One of the best means to combat Alopecia (hair loss) in the world it is considered the drug Finasteride, known under the brand name Propecia. It actually significantly enhances hair growth and makes them stronger. However, as discovered by doctors from the hospital Allmon in Buenos Aires, while taking this medicine men may experience erection problems. Moreover, the treatment stopping does not guarantee that the difficulties will dissapear.
Scientists led by Dr. Manuel Joya conducted a study involving volunteers who suffer from male-pattern baldness, and found that regular use of medication for two years can lead to impotence.
Basically Propecia is taken by men over 50, who began a course of treatment of baldness often have complains about the problems of a sexual nature. However, at risk are also young men. Recently the media reported a case of impotence in 26-year-old resident of Great Britain, who took Finasteride. Moreover, to improve sexual health failed, even with the help of hormone therapy and the only way for the young Briton was implantation of the implant.
Dec 23, 2010
Computer Working Triggers Obesity
To maintain weight in the norm one should not be distracted during the meal to something extraneous.
Many people prefer to eat while working such as sitting at the computer. However, a recent study found that snacking at the computer leads to the fact that a person begins to overeat during the day, which inevitably leads to the development of obesity. The same danger threatens also fans of snacking while watching TV.
British scientists conducted an experiment which was attended by two groups of volunteers. Participants from the first group were to play solitaire on the computer while trying 9 different dishes. Another group proposed to dine without being distracted by the game. The experiment showed that, while at the computer screen, people ate more and did not feel saturation.
After half an hour after meals to volunteers from both groups were proposed cookies. In this portion of "players" were two times more than the participants, had lunch in a peaceful atmosphere.
Researchers at Bristol University have found that to maintain weight in the normal should not be distracted during the meal to something extraneous. The experiment showed that such a distraction can also affect the next meal. According to scientists, computer work makes us forget what we ate and in what sequence, thus delaying the saturation.
- Memoirs of a recent meal, and determine the choice of further courses. At the same time, the distraction during a meal leads to increased eaten portions. Therefore, if we do not remember that you have eaten for lunch, then we eat more to the dinner, - says head of research Jeff Branstrom.
Dec 22, 2010
The Most Ridiculous Way To Lose Weight
The famous saying "Laughter prolongs life" was confirmed by scientists.
It turned out that the laughter has a beneficial effect on the organism as a whole and in certain conditions can even replaced fitness. Studies have shown that laughter can lower blood pressure, stress levels and even improve the immune system, thus helping to prolong life.
Researchers from Georgia State University conducted an experiment in which volunteers were showed videos of different laughing people.
Video viewing had the same impact on the body of the experiment participantsthat sport and exercise. Participants had decreased stress level, had increased amount of T-lymphocytes in the blood and decreased blood pressure.
But it turned out to be useful not any laughter. The most positive emotions evoked rolling female laughter with widely open mouth. Simple giggle with closed lips, on the contrary, caused fewer positive emotions.
- We react emotionally when we hear sounds of laughter - said Professor Michael Owren. - It's irresponsible answer, which is produced throughout life and has an important influence on how we interpret the laughter in everyday life ... In my opinion, the sound of laughter - is a fundamental mechanism for constructing and maintaining public relations.
American researchers reported about the study in the journal PLoS.
Dec 21, 2010
Scientists Found Out How We Should Eat
Sticking to the "Western" style of eating increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.
This is the conclusion of researchers at the University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan (Iran), who studied the relationship between dietary habits and risk of metabolic disorders and other diseases.
In the scientific study participated 425 people aged 35 to 55 years old, who were offered to fill in special forms to identify their dietary preferences. Researchers have identified five basic food models, that are conventionally called the "Western", "vegetarian", "balanced", "milk fat" and "vegetable-chicken." After this, the scientists assessed how each of the diets influences the expression of components of metabolic syndrome.
In the western-style diet are present sweets, butter, carbonated beverages, sugar, baked food, processed meats, fats and eggs. This diet significantly increased the risk of high blood triglycerides and blood pressure.
Balanced diet meant eating fish, peas, honey, nuts, juices, fruits and vegetables and almost did not contain hydrogenated fats. It helps to reduce blood levels of "bad" cholesterol associated with low density lipids.
Vegetarian diet includes plenty of fruits high in vitamin C and A, green vegetables, rice, beans and potatoes. However, despite these useful products, this food increased the risk of disorders of carbohydrate metabolism.
The two remaining style food: milk fat and vegetable-chicken - did not affect the risk of any manifestations of the metabolic syndrome.
The head of the research, a dietitian Maryam Zare said that the eating habits are influenced by a variety of factors. It's the cultural and ethnic differences, religious beliefs, food availability and economic situation. However, with great confidence we can assert that "western style" food, so widespread among modern humans, significantly increases the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. But the balanced diet, which, alas, is found not so often, reduces the risk.
Dec 20, 2010
Genetic Therapy Can Help Maintain Vision
U.S. scientists develop a new approach to treating age-related macular degeneration.
Now for the treatment of macular degeneration by gene therapy using viruses that carry DNA into cells. Although this method is quite efficient, it can lead to the development of the immune response, inflammation, cancer and even death.
Therefore, researchers are looking for new methods, not based on the use of viruses. Researchers from Tufts University have tried to solve this problem by using nanoparticles. Due to their small size they can penetrate the cell and protect the DNA, preventing the death of retinal cells and save the eyesight.
Yellow spot - is a place of greatest visual acuity in the retina.
I specially bred mice, researchers have caused the degeneration of the retina, similar to that found in humans. Then spent mice treated with nanoparticles carrying the gene encoding GDNF (glia-derived neurotrophic factor) - a protein that protects the photosensitive cells of the eye. Thanks to the treatment the retina loses less of photosensitive cells that helps maintain visual acuity. However, the protective effect that has been made of gene transfer was temporary and disappeared within two weeks after treatment.
Age-related macular degeneration leads to loss of clear, central vision and is the leading cause of visual impairment among people aged 60 and older.
"The next step is to ensure that the therapeutic effect lasted longer, adding to this a special DNA elements" - the researchers reported.
The results obtained can help researchers to develop new, safe treatments for degenerative diseases of the eye.
Work has been published on the website of the journal "Molecular Therapy".
Dec 17, 2010
Fractures Can Be Treated With "Liquid Bones"
Scientists have come up with an alternative to metal structures and prostheses used in fractures. To restore the bone structure, they propose to use quickly-hardening nanomaterial, which is injected into the broken bone.
Plastic material got the name "liquid bone", and is intended for introduction into the damaged area of bone tissue by injection. At room temperature, this substance is a liquid, but if it enters the body and the temperature is raised to 37 ° C it freezes for a few seconds, forming a solid structure that fills bone defects.
Each molecule of this drug has a pair of covalent bonds that connect it with other molecules. Over time, in its place a new bone tissue is formned due to the fact that the synthetic molecule "of liquid bones" researchers have laid the growth factor of bone tissue.
To facilitate the healing process researchers led by Thomas Webster from Brown University and in the size of the molecules of the new material special antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents.
- We are satisfied that our hardening of the material requires nothing except temperature, - said Webster. Previously used materials required for the setting of ultraviolet irradiation, this is why they could not be given by injection.
The new material has already passed the laboratory tests and in the near future, scientists plan to begin clinical studies. The sale of the "liquid bones" may come as early as 2013.
About this development is reported in the press release at Brown University.
Dec 16, 2010
Purple Berries Protect Multiple Sclerosis
The researchers found that eating purple berries and fruits may protect against dangerous diseases and to maintain the activity of the brain.
In particular, employees of the University of Manchester led by Professor Douglas Kell have shown that purple fruits such as blueberries, are able to protect against such diseases as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.
Due to certain substances in purple berries they absorb harmful compounds of iron. Meanwhile, namelly iron compounds trigger the production of dangerous toxins that damage the body. These toxins, called hydroxyl radicals that destroy the cells, causing a variety of degenerative diseases such as senile dementia.
According to scientists, the main role in this process are included in the berries of purple coloring specific iron chelators, which are tightly associated with the item, and release its toxins. Nearly the same effect have antioxidants in green tea, but "purple" are much more effective.
Vitamin C is also very effective against the toxins, but its excess can have the opposite effect.
- Modern biology is mainly concentrated on studies of the role of different genes in the development of diseases. At the same time underestimated the importance of iron as a special gene for the iron does not exist - Kelly said. - In my work I underlied the importance of this area for further research.
The authors, who described the findings in the journal Archives of Toxicology hope that their discovery will help in developing new approaches to the treatment of certain serious diseases.
Dec 15, 2010
Tissue Obtained From Stem Cells
Scientists have shown the world's first full-fledged human organ tissue created from stem cells.
Scientists at the Medical Center of Cincinnati Children's Hospital under the leadership of James Wells took embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent for comparison of possible transplantation of tissues derived from them. Surgical X-rays and additional molecules have helped professionals to simulate in the laboratory conditions the growth of tissues at the embryonic stage of human development.
After 28 days were obtained three-dimensional tissue structure that reflects the structure of intestinal tissue baby in the womb. Tissues functioned normally and contained all necessary cell types.
- The work is unique in its kind, because it clearly proves that the induced pluripotent stem cells in vitro can be transformed into the tissue of the human body with three-dimensional structure and composition of intestinal tissue. Hopefully, this development in the future will save people from terrible diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis, short bowel syndrome, inflammatory diseases of this organ, - said study leader James Wells.
Stem cells can become any cell of the body. An adult human doesn't practically have such cells, because the basic number of stem cells is formed at the stage of the embryo. At the moment, scientists around the world are developing several technologies to obtain stem cells from adult tissues. In particular, cells derived from the skin are called induced pluripotent.
Dec 14, 2010
Rudeness Leads To Hypertension
British scientists have figured out what life situations most often cause raising of blood pressure.
Statistics show that over 40 percent of the adult population of our planet suffers from high blood pressure. Hypertension is often called the "silent killer" because the disease can occur without clear-cut symptoms. About half of people suffering from hypertension, do not even know about it. It is necessary to know your blood pressure to avoid other serious problems. After all, high blood pressure is a risk factor for heart attack, stroke, disorders of the kidneys.
Rotary International - the oldest and most influential international association of business people and leading experts. The motto of the organization - "Service To Society Is Above Yourself." To convince people in the need to control blood pressure, experts of the British company YouGov, which specializes in marketing research, commissioned by the Stroke Association, Rotary International and First Aid conducted a study to find out what life situations contribute to the rise of pressure. Using the Internet, were polled more than 2000 people. 92 percent of them have confirmed that in everyday life there are situations that cause irritation and rise in blood pressure.
'Record-breakers' among the causes of high pressure were bad manners and rudeness. They make nervous 79 percent of the respondents. In second place are long queues, which irritate 66 percent of the people. On the third - bad driving, negatively affecting the well-being of 61 percent of respondents. The list of annoying events also included a loud conversation on a cell phone (40%) and reality shows (32%). Moreover, men get more irritated by the shows more than women (38% vs. 27%).
Darth Laura (Laura Dart), deputy director of the Stroke Association, said that up to 40% of strokes could be avoided if the time was put on treatment of hypertension.
Dec 9, 2010
Soybeans Can Save Children Lives
Soybeans can save children from deadly disease.
British researchers claim that the chemical compound of natural origin which is present in soybeans, can be used to treat a genetic disease affecting mainly children.
Employees of the University of Manchester have found that genistein, a substance derived from soybeans, helps people with syndrome Sanfilippo.
Sanfilippo - is an incurable mucopolysaccharide disease (MPS) affecting one child from 100.000.
Sanfilippo syndrome - a complex of congenital anomalies, including mental retardation, thickening of the skull bones, liver enlargement, abnormal change in the shape of the lumbar vertebrae. In this disease there is an increase of acid mucopolysaccharides in urine.
"Children with Sanfilippo syndrome in early childhood suffer deterioration of mental functions, resembling dementia. In this case, there are other symptoms, including severe behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, which results in death within the first ten years of life "- said Dr. Biggar, author of the study.
During the experiment, scientists from the lab of stem cells in the first nine months fed mice suffering from the disease with food in which were added high doses of genistein. Such diet contributed to severe retardation of mental degeneration, including reducement of a third part of additional sugar produced in the brain as a result of the disease and reducement of inflammation in the brain.
Genistein treatment also helped to cope with behavioral problems such as hyperactivity, which occur in patients with Sanfilippo syndrome.
Dec 8, 2010
Infidelity Is Genetically Determined
American scientists have discovered why some people are more likely to lead sexually promiscuous life.
Scientists from the New York State University in Binghamton found that a genetic mutation pushes a promiscuous man. The study's authors argue that the causer of family turmoil is the gene DRD4, associated with the dopamine receptor D4.
Researchers from the Laboratory of Evolutionary Anthropology and Health guided by Justin Garcia collected data on sex life of 181 volunteers who were taken DNA samples. Comparing the patterns and history of the sexual adventures of the experiment participants, the researchers found that a variant of the DRD4 gene doubles the propensity of the person to adventurous sexual behavior.
People are pushed to the depraved behavior by structural feature of the pleasures and rewards in the brain. Release of dopamine, which accompanies risk-taking behavior, gives owner of a unique gene more pleasure than others have.
Dopamine - is a substance that releases while waiting for the pleasure and immediately after the goal achievement and determines the ability to enjoy life.
But do not to explain all love adventures only with genetic causes. Scientists emphasize that not all people with this variation of the DRD4 are prone to treachery. At the same time people who have not this genotype are cheating more frequently.
Dopamine receptors in the body is responsible for receiving pleasure. Previously, researchers had already found the link between dopamine receptors and the tendency of people to seek thrills, open to new social contacts, political liberalism, as well as addiction to alcohol, gambling and horror movies.
The work of researchers is reported in the magazine of the Public Library of Science (PLoS ONE).
Dec 7, 2010
Health Depends On Month Of Birth
Scientific studies prove that the time of the year in which the birth occurs, affects the "biological clock" of the body. While those born in the winter season may be faced with disturbances of biological rhythms that affect their health.
Researchers from Vanderbilt University in Tennessee (USA) studied the effect of the duration of daylight on the health of the mice that were grown in the laboratory. Newborn rodents were divided into three groups. Animals from the first years of living under a light mode - 16 hours of daylight and 8 hours dark. Specimens from the second group got in the winter light conditions - 8 hours of daylight and 16 night. Animals from the control group received 12 daytime and nighttime hours.
When the mice got matured, the scientists transferred them into comfortable for them conditions of constant darkness and began to observe their behavior. As a result, it was found out that mice raised in conditions of summer light did not respond to changes in the "season". Every day, they were active for 10 hours, then rested for 4 hours. Rodents kept this rhythm, regardless of the duration of the night time.
Mice born in the winter time, followed a similar regime, but their activity begins one hour before the "sunset" and lasted for 12 hours. However, these animals are slow to adjust to new conditions.
Such behavior of the mice born in the winter, according to scientists, is much similar to seasonal affective disorder in humans, also known as "winter gloom." It is known that people born in the winter months, increases the risk of developing mental disorders such as schizophrenia, say doctors. This risk may be associated with the violation of the biological clock, which was originally set up for "winter" mode.
"We found out that the behavior of mice programm initial light conditions. Animals that have come in the winter, had a tendency to a longer rest, it was hard to adapt them to daylight lighting mode", - said study author Douglas Makmaon (Douglas McMahon).
"The most amazing thing is that regime change affects both the behavior of animals, as well as the cyclic activity of neurons in the main biological clock of the brain", - said one of the authors of the study Chris Ciarleglio.
About this study, the researchers reported in an article published in the journal Nature Neuroscience.
Dec 6, 2010
Female Schizophrenics Are Smarter Than Men
Schizophrenia occurs in different ways in men and women.
A recent study of Canadian researchers found that the brains of men and women suffering from schizophrenia are significantly different. In this case, female schizophrenics appeared to be smarter than men suffering from this disease.
During the experiment, patients with schizophrenia, men and women were supposed to rotate in the mind a three-dimensional image. The researchers assessed how well the participants coped with this task using magnetic resonance imaging. As a result, found that mentally ill women performed better this task than male patients.
Schizophrenia - is a mental disorder that is characterized by abnormalities in the perception of reality, or its reflection.
"Of great importance are the hormones such as testosterone and estrogen, - says head of research Adrianne Mendrek, Professor, University of Montreal. - As a result of previous studies it has been shown that testosterone is responsible for muscle strength and mass in healthy men, but this hormone has no such effect on healthy women. At the same time, women suffering from schizophrenia, had raised levels of this hormone.
Even resting the brain of men and women work differently. The activity of certain brain areas active at rest, was more pronounced in women than in men, the researchers found.
The research is reported in a recent issue of the journal Schizophrenia Research.
Dec 3, 2010
Pathogenic Viruses Are Stronger Then Household Detergents
American scientists have found that almost 40% of the disinfectants are ineffective against noroviruses that cause gastrointestinal illnesses.
These organisms are spread through direct contact with the sick person, as well as through contaminated objects, food or surfaces. Since this group of viruses can cause epidemic outbreaks, the researchers tested the effectiveness of decontamination agents which are used for processing in catering and at home.
A team of researchers from Laval University, led by Professor Julia Jean checked the effectiveness of disinfecting liquids, belonging to the three main categories of household chemical reagents: chlorine substances based on alcohol and ammonia.
In the result it turned out that five minutes after the surface handling of the first solution concentration of these species on the surface of stainless steel decreased by a factor of 1,000, while the other two were 100 times less effective in destroying viruses.
- We are very concerned because nearly 40% of disinfectants available commercially, are based on alcohol or ammonia - commented Professor Jean.
In addition, it became clear that malicious viruses need only ten minutes to take hold on a flat stainless steel, after which they may remain there for several weeks and infect anyone who touches that surface. Other materials have not been tested, but it is likely that the results would be the same.
Article devoted to a study is published in the Journal of Food Protection.
Dec 2, 2010
High Protein Diet Is The Best
The consumption of protein foods will help you make the figure slender.
Danish scientists found that a diet providing consumption in large amounts of protein foods such as meat without fat, and simultaneous restriction of consumption of carbohydrates with high glycemic index such as white bread and rice, is best to lose excess weight. At that it is not necessary to exhaust oneself with hunger - you can eat and this will not interfere with the process of losing weight.
Largest in the history nutritional research was conducted by Copenhagen University staff. Totally, the study involved 772 families, including 938 adults and 827 children. First two months adult participants FC:C on a diet providing an intake of no more than 800 kcal per day. Thus, volunteers were able to lose an average of 11 kg.
Then participants were randomly assigned to four groups depending to the proposed diets that differed in their level of intake of protein and carbohydrates.
As a result, it became clear that the most effective is a high protein diet with low glycemic index. On average, adherers of high-protein test diets had the growth of the mass of 0.93 kg less than that of people being on the low protein diet.
The most inefficient turned out to be low-protein diet (proteins had accounted for 13% of energy consumed) with a high glycemic index - members of this group gained on average of 1.67 kg.
Experiments of Danish scientists were presented in the "New England Journal of Medicine».
Dec 1, 2010
The Aging Process Can Be Reversed
For the first time researchers have been able to rejuvenate the whole organism of experimental animals.
As it is known, during the process of cell division there is a reduction of telomere length - special sections at the ends of chromosomes. As a result, when telomeres reach a certain length further division is not happening, and the cell dies. In this way the aging process occurs in the organism.
However, animals and humans have a special enzyme in their body - telomerase, controlling telomere length. Scientists have long suspected that using this enzyme it is possible to achieve the rejuvenation of the body, but to demonstrate this for the first time managed the staff of the medical faculty at Harvard University.
Researchers have bred genetically modified mice, the work of telomerase of which was blocked. As a result, young species have the whole range of diseases associated with premature aging. Since rodents with telomerase turned off quickly lost their fertility, they suffered from osteoporosis, diabetes, and the degradation of nerve tissue.
The researchers then turned on deactivated enzyme with a special substance 4-OHT. After that in the mice there began to occur regeneration processes. New cells were actively produced and replaced the old ones, but organs began to work on rejuvenation.
Two months after the taking of the drug an infertile male was able to conceive 3 numerous offsprings. In addition, the animals had their liver, spleen, intestines and other organs recovered.
But scientists warn that the role of telomeres in the body have not yet fully established and their simple extension to prolong life may cause negative side effects, including the development of cancer.
Nov 30, 2010
U.S. scientists have found that H1N1 influenza is often manifested by cough and cold rather than the temperature rise.
Until now it was thought that patients with influenza have to have fever. Therefore, among patients with fever doctors were looking for those who may be ill with flu. For example, during a pandemic flu (H1N1) all passengers at airports were measured body temperature. However, the results of a study led by Professor Seoul University Sang-Won Park, show that nearly half of patients with mild form of the disease hadn't have the fever.
The researchers analyzed medical records of patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of influenza H1N1 at the beginning of the pandemic of 2009. It was found that fever was detected only in 45.5% of cases. The remaining patients with mild form of disease and without fever could be missed when examined in the airport and continued to infect others.
- Previously, fever was considered a key symptom of flu - said Professor Park. - However, most often the disease is manifested by coughing. Therefore, physicians should pay attention to all patients with symptoms of colds and identify among them influenza patients.
These results are consistent with other studies, according to which the fever is found only in 31% of flu cases.
Materials research published in the American Journal of Infection Control, the official publication of the Specialists Association of Infection Control and Epidemiology, USA.
Nov 29, 2010
Beet Juice For Muscle Building?
During the experiments scientists managed to prove that beet juice is useful for muscles working. It turns out that those who want to build their muscles should not eat a variety of synthetic drugs, but the beet juice.
Researchers from the UK conducted an experiment in which seven healthy males performed a series of sit-ups. In this case, the scientists measured the level of physical exertion of the testees and conducted surveillance of muscles with magnetic resonance imaging scan. The test was repeated twice: firstly men had to do exercises after drinking beet juice, and then it was changed to a placebo, based on black currants. Totals surprised doctors: beet juice allows muscles to withstand a longer workout and they absorb much less oxygen.
Employees of the University of Exeter believe that the use of beets may increase the duration of exercise at 16%. Betaine dying substance, iron and folic acid improves the flow of oxygen to the muscles, and a high content of vitamins C, P, B1, B2, PP beet fill their deficits formed after exercise, the researchers found.
Nov 26, 2010
Insulin Is A Remedy For Scars
British scientists found out that injections of the hormone insulin can help to get rid of postoperative scarring.
The hormone insulin is used to treat diabetes, turned out to be extremely effective for preventing scar tissue formation.
It is known that fibrous tissue is formed on the wound place after surgery, which differs from ordinary skin. It is less elastic and less resistant to ultraviolet light, has no sweat glands and hair. Therefore, the skin on the scar location is always gentle, which makes it painful to touch.
Besides the fact that the scar itself looks extremely unaesthetic, which is often a cause of depression for patients.
Scientists came to help patients. In numerous experiments it was revealed that the introduction of insulin after the operation are left much smaller scars. This hormone may also speed up the healing of old scars.
In clinical trials at the Hospital of Queen Victoria in the UK took part 75 women, some of them were made insulin injections after surgery, and another part - a placebo. All women had surgery for breast reduction. After 12 months doctors compared the results. As in previous cases, those patients who were treated with insulin, post-surgical scars were healing faster.
Experts believe that the potential of this therapy may prove to be truly incredible.
Nov 25, 2010
Cholesterol Is Especially Dangerous For Youn
If a young man has a slightly raised cholesterol levels, it is possible that in future he will develop atherosclerosis of coronary arteries, the researchers found.
Until now, the doctors were convinced that cholesterol level indicator can not be used to diagnose diseases in young people. Because only a small percentage of young men suffer from cardiac angina and moreover, from myocardial infarction. In this respect, doctors found it difficult to assess what impact on the development of atherosclerosis in elderly and middle age have raised levels of cholesterol in youth.
In the study, researchers led by Professor Mark Fletcher took part more than three thousand healthy young men and women. For two decades, they were measured for indicators of "bad" and "good" cholesterol, as well as triglycerides (fat molecules in the blood). At the end of the experiment physicians rated the severity of coronary atherosclerosis using computed tomography. At that time participants were about 45 years old.
Analyzing obtained findings, scientists came to a startling conclusion. It turned out that people who have had high levels of "bad" cholesterol and low "good" one in the youth, were more likely to develop atherosclerosis. For example, if the level of low density cholesterol exceeded 160 mg / dL, atherosclerosis developed in 44% of cases. At the same time, people with a level of "bad" cholesterol below 70 mg/dL - atherosclerosis was found in only 8% of cases.
Scientists emphasize that even a slight increase in the level of "bad" cholesterol (100-129 mg / dL) in youth significantly increases the risk of atherosclerosis in the future.
- Young people should think about their diet and physical activity. After all, the sooner begun prevention of heart disease and stroke, so it is more efficient - the authors point out.
Article telling about the study was published in the journal Annals of Internal Medicine.
Nov 24, 2010
The Newborn Will Tell About Mother Smoking
American scientists have found that examining the newborn meconium it is possible to determine whether the mother smoked during pregnancy.
Employees of the University of North Carolina (USA) carried out an interesting experiment. They studied meconium of 337 babies to determine the concentration of metabolites of tobacco smoke. It turned out that this index reflects the duration and intensity of the impact of smoking on the child in the womb. In almost all cases in newborns whose mothers smoked the concentration of metabolites of tobacco smoke was high. It was lower if a woman during pregnancy has been a passive smoker, and virtually zero if there were no contact with tobacco.
Meconium - the so-called original cal. It is produced in the intestine of the fetus being in the womb. After birth, the child gives off meconium during the first days of life.
Tobacco smoke is one of the environmental factors which is almost in constant contact with us. Pregnant women are not an exception. Many moms are sure that it is perfectly safe for their unborn children. However, study author Professor Joe Brown argues that the active and even passive smoking during pregnancy adversely affects the health of the child.
With this simple method as the measurement of metabolites of tobacco smoke in the meconium it is possible to assess the real impact of this harmful substance on the kid, which is often underestimated.
The study's authors say their discovery is very promising. It was possible to measure the concentration in the meconium and other substances with which the expectant mother contacted during pregnancy. This is especially significant for unstable compounds such as bisphenol A and phthalic acid compound.
Article telling about the study is published in the journal Enviromental Health.
Nov 23, 2010
Nighttime Pressure Is Dangerous For Diabetic
People with diabetes are at risk of dying from heart attack or stroke if their blood pressure at night is higher than in the daytime.
Brazilian researchers conducted a study, which was attended by 70 people with diabetes and hypertension. After two years of observations, eleven patients developed diabetic nephropathy (kidney disease associated with diabetes), while 4 of them - heart attack, stroke or angina (angina pectoris).
Daytime blood pressure was approximately the same in all study participants. However, with night-pressure situation was different: in patients with diabetic nephropathy, myocardial infarction, stroke or angina pectoris had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure than others.
Basal blood pressure is measured directly in people after a night's sleep before the study participant got out of bed on an empty stomach in the supine position.
Increased basal blood pressure was associated with diabetic neuropathology, myocardial infarction, stroke, angina and elevated levels of albumin in the urine (normally present in small quantities).
Researchers reached the conclusion that the lack of normal blood pressure at night-time increases the risk of diabetic kidney disease, heart attack, stroke and angina. According to the researchers that it may be due to short-term stop of breathing during the sleep - obstructive sleep apnea - or renal failure with urine retention.
Article telling about the study was published in the ninth volume of the journal Cardiovascular Diabetology for 2010.
Nov 22, 2010
"Broken" Clock Causes Heart Disease
The break of the 'inner clock' of the organism may cause an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.
The majority of living creatures, including humans, within a day experience changes of various physiological and biochemical processes in the body. These variations are called circadian rhythms. American scientists in experiments with mice have found that a violation of circadian rhythms can lead to unexpected results - increased levels of triglycerides in the blood.
Typically, the level of triglycerides in the blood varies throughout the day. Rise and fall occur at regular intervals. But when the inner biological clock "breaks", such fluctuations disappear and the triglyceride level is permanently high. That was found by scientists during the experiments on mice.
During the experiment it was found that the main component of the circadian scheme - is a protein known as CLOCK, which affects the activity of other proteins (including, for protein MTP - microsomal triglyceride transfer protein), controlling the levels of triglycerides in the blood.
- If the results of experiments on mice can be extrapolated to humans, then it is logical to conclude that the action of medications reducing triglyceride levels, affecting the protein MTP, depends on the time of reception. You can change the dose depending on the time of the day - says Mahmood Hussain from the SUNY Downstate Medical Center.
The study also suggests that actions that disrupt the circadian rhythm - waking up to 2 p.m or trips to another time zone - may affect the metabolism of lipids. Scientists told about this study in the journal "Cell Metabolism".
Nov 19, 2010
Public Transport Is Good For Bones
Researchers found that daily travel in public transport helps to keep bones healthy and strong.
Due to intense vibrations loss of bone density slows down, which is especially important for older people.
The fact that the regular shakes help to strengthen bones and joints was proved by the staff at the Medical College of Georgia (USA). During three months scientists vibrated older mice aged 18 months.
- When compared with the human, this age corresponds to about 55-60 years - said study leader Dr. Karl Wenger.
Researchers have found that due to vibrations the structure of the femur significantly thickened, especially in the hip joint. And this is one of the finest spot of the human skeleton. Hip fractures in the elderly often lead to disability and even death.
According to Karl Wenger, in the course of their work, scientists have scientific evidence of the effectiveness of the so-called "Vibrotherapy", known since XIX century. This technique is safe enough and can be used in rehabilitation centers and at home, claim the authors.
From a scientific point of view the positive effects of vibration can be explained as follows. Vibration is a kind of exercise for the body's cells. Due to vibration of the nuclei of cells are set in motion which then passed filaments - numerous fibers.
- The filaments are deformed like a spring, and then get straighten, - said Wenger. Such training improves the function of body cells.
However, experts do not advise patients to be enthusiastic with vibration. It must be remembered that the mechanical vibrations of high frequency can cause disorders of the nervous system and musculoskeletal system.
Article telling about the study was published in the October issue of the medical journal 'Bone'.
Nov 17, 2010
The Liver 'Grows' Out Of The Skin
British scientists from Cambridge University managed to get liver cells from human skin cells.
Liver cells are almost impossible to be cultivated in vitro. This imposes significant limitations to the study of processes that occur in case of liver disease. However, staff at Cambridge University have developed a new technology, which can be used to grow liver cells from skin cells of patients.
For their study researchers used skin samples taken from seven patients suffering from various congenital diseases of the liver, as well as from three healthy people from control group. Researchers 'reprogrammed' skin cells into stem cells, from which created liver cells with signs of disease, as well as healthy liver cells from samples obtained from participants in the control group. It is important to note that the three diseases, which the scientists managed to simulate are the most common diseases of this organ. In this case, the mechanisms leading to this disease are typical for other liver diseases.
Liver disease is ranked fifth among the leading causes of death after cardiovascular diseases, cancer, strokes and respiratory diseases. Scientists expect that within the next 10-20 years the mortality rates from these diseases could overtake deaths from strokes and cardiovascular diseases.
- Taken into account the shortage of donor organs for liver transplantation, the development of new therapies is of particular importance, - notes Dr. Tamir Rashid from the laboratory of regenerative medicine at Cambridge University, author of the publication in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.
Using new technology, scientists can not only follow the processes occurring in liver cells in various diseases, but also be able to test new methods of treatment. In the future, this discovery will lead to the development of individual treatment methods and improve the so-called cell therapy (a technique when cells in the liver of patients with genetic diseases can be cured and transplanted back to the patient).
New technology researchers hope to use for growing cells of other organs, too.
Nov 16, 2010
Diabetes Can Be Cured With Silver Microneedl
Scientists have invented how to give the antimicrobial properties for microneedles intended for use in portable medical devices.
Vaccination with microneedles is a new word in medicine of the XXI century. When using microneedles, patients almost do not feel pain; tissue damage and inflammation of the skin do not occur.
With the help of microneedles it is possible treat chronic diseases such as Parkinson's or diabetes. For example, equipped with a micro-needle glucose-meter will be able to continuously monitor blood sugar levels. The main thing that hinders the use of microneedles - is the risk of infection.
Scientists from the University of North Carolina (USA) managed to achieve significant progress in addressing this problem. With the help of a laser on the surface of microneedles was applied a thin layer of silver, which is known to have antimicrobial properties and is safe for the body.
If the microneedles are designed for single use, such as the introduction of vaccines, the inventors propose to produce them from the soluble material. In this case, the antimicrobial component is added to the material from which the microneedles are made. Once the microneedles will dissolve, the antimicrobial component remains at the injection spot and prevent infection.
- Our invention will expand the area of use of microneedles in medicine, particularly in outpatient practice. Microneedles can be a painless alternative to modern methods of treating diabetes and cancer - commented on the work of scientists lead researcher, Dr. Roger Narayan, professor of biomedical engineering at the University of North Carolina.
Report on the new technology was presented at the 1st International Conference on the microneedle, which was held in Atlanta.
Nov 15, 2010
Potato May Help To Lose Weight
Nutritionists say that the potato is an excellent dietary product.
As a rule, those who want to lose weight, eliminate from the diet potatoes because the product has a high glycaemic index.
However, as noted by the study's authors, weight loss is not associated with the rejection of any product. The most important is to reduce the number of calories consumed.
Employees of the University of California at Davis and the National Center for Food Safety and Technology at Illinois Institute of Technology conducted an experiment, which was attended by 86 volunteers who had extra weight. All of them had to follow a potato diet, including 5.7 servings of root in a week. After 12 days it became clear that all participants in the experiment managed to reduce weight.
Futhermore, one third of the participants consumed food with low glycemic index. Other participants ate foods with high glycemic index. A control group was guided only by common dietary recommendations. All groups had to reduce calorie food at 500 calories a day and eat seven servings of potatoes per week. One medium sized potato with peel contains about 110 calories, more potassium than a banana, and almost an entire day's dosage of vitamin C, Potatoes do not contain fat, sodium and cholesterol.
Thus, the experiment showed that one should not completely eliminate the potatoes from the diet, it is necessary to cook it properly.
- There is no evidence that properly cooked potatoes leads to weight gain. On the contrary, the root may well be part of a weight loss diet - says study leader Britt Burton-Freeman (Britt Burton-Freeman).
Of this curious study, researchers reported at the 28 th annual scientific meeting of the American Society of obesity.
Nov 12, 2010
Aspirin Triggers Chronic Intestinal Disease
People who regularly take aspirin for a year are at risk of inflammation and swelling of the intestinal mucosa.
Crohn's disease - a chronic disease, the main feature of which is inflammation and swelling of the intestinal mucosa. In case of this disease one needs to take medication all life long. In severe cases, surgical treatment is needed - the removal of a part of the intestine. These patients are also at increased risk of developing bowel cancer.
The researchers analyzed data collected during the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, in which took part 200,000 thousand volunteers.
All study participants were initially healthy. However, a few years later some of them developed Crohn's disease. Comparing these data with how frequently study participants took aspirin, the researchers found that the use of this medicine for a year or more increases the risk of Crohn's disease by five times.
At the same time, the study showed that aspirin has no effect on the development of ulcerative colitis that is similar to Crohn's disease.
- Aspirin is a drug that has many useful properties, including the prevention of heart attack and stroke. Therefore, I advise those who regularly take aspirin, do not stop taking it because the risk of developing Crohn's disease is very small. This disease affects only one from 2000 people taking this medication and this fact has definitely not been proven, - said Dr. Andrew Hart, head of research at the University of East Anglia.
Now, researchers plan to continue research to find out what other factors could lead to the development of Crohn's disease. The results were presented at the Conference on Digestive Diseases (Digestive Disease Week), held in New Orleans.
Nov 11, 2010
An Alternative To Oral Contraceptives Found
New contraceptive gel, developed by U.S. company Antares Pharma, has successfully passed trials II Phase.
Scientists are developing an alternative to oral hormonal contraceptives, which are used for protection from unwanted pregnancy.
Hormonal contraceptive gel Nestorone ®-Estradiol is designed for application to the skin in the abdomen, hips, shoulders and forearms. As all oral contraceptives, the gel contains synthetic versions of female hormones that control the menstrual cycle.
Created by an American company Antares Pharma drug has passed Phase II trials. The study involved 18 healthy women aged 20-40 years. Within seven months participants were tested the action of gel. The experiment showed that contraceptive gel is effective even in small concentrations, and during its use, none of the participants did not get pregnant.
During the tests the researchers also found that the optimal dose of medication is three milligrams per day. It is also important that it was not observed side effects such as weight gain or acne, which are very common in hormone pills.
If the full cycle of clinical trials will be completed successfully then contraceptive gel may appear over the counter within five years.
Successes in developing new contraceptive were reported at the 66th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine.
Nov 10, 2010
Prenatal Diagnosis Comes To A New Level
Modern screening systems allow not only more accurately diagnose the unborn child, but also to prevent the birth of children with severe developmental disabilities.
Modern clinics have begun the transition to a more modern system of prenatal diagnostic computer Delfia-Life. Delfia analyzer allows greater accuracy in diagnosing the probability of having a future child of severe congenital diseases such as Down syndrome, Edwards syndrome, heart defects, etc.
These diseases are far from uncommon - Down syndrome, for example, is detected in each 700-800 newborn. Prenatal diagnosis reduces the incidence of children born with these diseases.
Due to being introduced into hospitals system can not only improve the accuracy of research, but also expand the list of detected abnormalities. Prenatal diagnosis - prenatal testing, conducted to detect pathology at the stage of fetal development. Prenatal diagnosis also comprises the identification of sex of the child and paternity determination in early pregnancy.
Experts note that the new system has many advantages. The main of them - is high sensitivity, reaching 97.6% at a low level of false positive results and a wide range of abnormalities identified this technique.
- It's important to remember that the result of risk determination is not a subject to interpretation and diagnosis by a doctor-geneticist - emphasizes expert, head of diagnostic laboratory NIARMEDIK Anna Chisini.
Prenatal screening is carried out in the I trimester of pregnancy at 10-13 weeks and in the II trimester in terms of 16-18 weeks. In case of detection of fetal disease parents have a chance to assess carefully the possibility of rehabilitation of the child and decide on his future.
Nov 9, 2010
In recent years people began to think more about hormone diet. The idea is not new, the first time it was discussed in the 70 years and is mainly due to hormonal changes the female body during menopause. Then there were the details about the "female plants", containing in the structure substances similar to estradiol (female hormone), the level which is greatly reduced during menopause. It was assumed that these substances coming in the body with food will help to balance these hormones racing and remove the unpleasant symptoms of menopause. Hormone diet did not become a breakthrough in the field of dietetics.
American Beauty ...
In America, it is going to release an entire book devoted to the role of hormones in life and, in particular, in the noble cause of loss of excess weight. Hormone Diet is positioned as a three-step program designed to balance hormones, improve health and eating habits and leading to reducing excess weight for both men and women. The three-step hormone diet lasts for six weeks, two of which is a phase of cleaning, when are excluded highly allergic products. In the first two weeks authors predict weight loss of half to three kilograms. In the following weeks, weight loss will be closer to that of 800 g per week.
The second step is a gradual return of excluded products and the control of their tolerance.
Finally, the third step, yoga, cardio and strength training should raise the energy level, strength, and improve emotional state.
Hormone diet involves the consumption of clean, preferably organic foods, consisting of products without preservatives and processing. Also are recommended a wide range of additives, including probiotic, cleansing mixtures of herbs, colon cleansing mixture with fiber and containing Omega-3 fatty acid fish oil.
The rules are simple: if there is a "right" products in the "right" time (approximately every 3 - 4 hours) and avoid products that "complicate" hormone production (excluded by developers), you can balance your hormones so that excess weight will be gone.
Nov 5, 2010
Hypervitaminosis (intoxication or vitamins poisoning) - is a disease caused by an overdose of vitamins. The optimal dose and specific symptoms of overdose for each vitamin own. Hypervitaminosis is becoming more common in developed countries, where are popular various vitamin supplements. Many people are treated for minor illnesses with large doses (megadoses) of vitamins.
Vitamins are organic molecular compounds contained in food. In small quantities they are needed by the body for growth, reproduction and health keeping. Vitamins, have the ability to dissolve in the melted butter and fat are called fat-soluble. This group includes vitamins D, E, A (retinol) and K. The remaining vitamins can dissolve in water. Water-soluble vitamins include folic, pantenol, nicotinic acid, vitamins C, B6 and B12, biotin, thiamin, riboflavine. Overdose of any vitamin can lead to intoxication. The most dangerous in this sense are vitamins A and D. The risk of an overdose of riboflavin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin C and the most insignificant.
Vitamins in medicine
Vitamin supplements are used in medicine for the treatment and prevention of certain diseases. For example, moderate consumption of folic acid reduces the risk of some cancers and some congenital abnormalities (neural tube defects). Irreversible consequences arise only when taking vitamin D. It is dangerous even in doses that are slightly higher than recommended. Nicotinic acid is used to treat diseases of the cardiovascular system. It is much less toxic than vitamin D. However, any vitamins should be taken under medical supervision.
Large doses of vitamins
Taking of any vitamins by healthy people (except folic acid) does not have to enhance one's health in any way. Most often to obtain the necessary doses of vitamins it is enough to eat, but more people are consuming them in doses higher than the recommended norm. These large doses of vitamins are sometimes called megadoses. Most of the vitamins are harmless, even in this dosage, but taking large doses of vitamins D, A and B6 is dangerous and can lead to death. Scientists are studying the effect of large doses of vitamins C and E. According to some reports, they can reduce their risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease, as well as slowing the aging process. However, while the effect of mega-doses of these vitamins is unclear: some researchers believe that vitamin C protects against cancer, others - that, in contrast, provokes its development.
Nov 4, 2010
Diet good for your heart, does not necessarily begin with the prohibitions: "No" for fatty, salty, delicious food. A common myth is that heart diet should be very strict. But in fact, diet good for the cardiovascular system and your waistline may also include beef and chocolate cake with strawberries.
Experts believe that the hearts of most useful balanced diet that includes all four major sources of nutrients: fruits and vegetables, meat (preferably lean), dairy products (preferably low fat), cereals. Watch for fat, cholesterol and salt in food, focusing on recommendations about healthy foods and recipes nutritionists on the way, and the aforementioned chocolate cake with strawberries and beef.
It never hurts to talk to your doctor about your diet and how to improve it. And for the basic rule one should take the principle of "all is good in moderation."
Is now believed to experts, even alcoholic drinks in moderation are good for health. Studies have shown that people with moderate alcohol consumption suffer less from heart disease.
Excess of saturated fats can lead to increased levels of cholesterol and atherosclerosis, the formation of fatty deposits on the inner walls of blood vessels. But insufficient intake or total lack of fat is also harmful. Thus you lose the fat-soluble vitamins and protective properties of mono-unsaturated fats. Because fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K absorbed by the body only in the presence of fat. Therefore, its deficiency can result in vitamin deficiency.
Not all fats are equal, some are more useful. For example, mono-unsaturated fats contribute to the development of "useful" high-density cholesterol, protects against heart disease. Olive oil, rich in mono-unsaturated fats, also contains small amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3, which turned out to be good for your heart. These acids are also found in fish oils, peanut butter and oil from the seeds.
There are other arguments in favor of certain fats. Thus, their complete absence in the diet leaves a person forever hungry, and it eventually breaks down and overeating. Such diets pose a threat to health due to nutritional deficiency. This is especially true for children, experts say. It is very risky to put children on a similar diet during the period of intensive growth.
American Heart Association recommends that the diet of children older than two years should contain fats not more than 30% of all consumed calories per day. The consumption of different types of fats is recommended guiding by the following points:
* Saturated fatty acids (the main "culprit" of raised cholesterol levels) should be less than 10% of caloric intake. Such acids found primarily in foods of animal origin: chicken, beef, pork, dairy products, as well as in some kinds of plant foods. * Polyunsaturated fatty acids contained in corn oil and other vegetable oils, should deliver 8-10% of calories. * And finally, another 10-15% of calories should be obtained from mono-unsaturated fatty acids contained in peanuts and olive oils.
It is also recommended to reduce the daily intake of cholesterol to 300 milligrams, and sodium - up to 2.4 grams. Cholesterol, like saturated fats, is found in any food of animal origin - in meat, fish, poultry, dairy products.
Nov 3, 2010
The Link Between Food And Mood
Did you know that the best start of the day - is a yogurt for breakfast? Use of some products soothes and improves the well-being, others - invigorating and even exhilarating. Some products are "bottlenecks" and cause you feeling depressed. So how does the food is associated with mood?
Amino acids from different foods differently absorbed by the body. As a result different substances are produced. Some occur at the same chemical reactions affect the blood sugar levels, mood and appetite.
Dairy products, fish, meat and poultry contribute to mental and physical activity. Amino acids contained in these products stimulate the production of neurotransmitters that have a tonic effect.
Foods rich in carbohydrates such as potatoes, helps you relax. Such foods helps produce serotonin. This removes the neurotransmitter nervousness and depression. During fasting neurotransmitters are not produced.
Effect of food on mood
By changing the diet you can improve mood. Here are some tips on how to do it.
· Eat healthy foods for breakfast. For breakfast we recommend is the dried bread, fruits and protein foods (yogurt, low-fat or soft cheese). Proteins - the best food for the brain. They give energy and help to cope with fatigue. If you do not eat breakfast, lost a sense of discipline, appear tired and irritable. If you do not like breakfast, take yogurt to work with him and eat it there.
· Limit the amount of protein for dinner. Dine food rich in carbohydrates: pasta, potatoes, corn or rice. This will help you relax before bedtime. The main portion of the protein foods you need to get through the day. Do not overeat in the evening: it overloads the digestive system and how to prevent sleep.
· Drink plenty of water. If you exercise regularly, daily drink at 2-2,5 liters of water. This rate depends on the health, weight, physical fitness, diet and other factors. Stay in the hot or conditioned rooms leads to dehydration. More water is required for those who live on hills or in dry climates. Some drinks, such as caffeine have diuretic and dehydrate the body.
· Minimize stress. Stress makes people eat fatty, sugary or salty foods. This leads to weight gain and poor general health. However, sometimes you can afford to eat what you want. If you exclude some products, sooner or later they will want to try even harder.
· Take care of health. Eat a balanced way, watch your weight, limit your intake of sugar, caffeine and alcohol.
Nov 2, 2010
Slimming Tea Can Be Dangerous For The Heart
British scientists have found that herbal teas for weight loss can trigger a stroke and heart attack.
The point is that some of the weight loss drug contain Sibutramine which banned for use in several European countries and the USA.
Sibutramine, belonging to the group of amfitamines raises a number of side effects. Although in 1997 it was approved as a way for weight loss, there is recent scientific evidence that this drug can be dangerous for people suffering from cardiovascular diseases.
The uncontrolled use of sibutramine may increase blood pressure, seizures, heart attacks and strokes, as well as other side effects during the interaction with other drugs.
The British agency for quality control of medicines and medical products (MHRA) have warned that those who use herbal tea brand Payouji tea, or diet pills Pai You Guo Slim Capsules, should abandon them and to be examined by your doctor.
- People should know that tea and tablets Payyutszi Pai Guo loe not been certified as herbal medicines, and therefore do not meet current standards - said the head of department phytopreparations MHRA Richard Woodfield.
Warning of the dangers of herbal teas available on the website of British Agencies for Quality Control of Medicines and Medical Products (MHRA).
Nov 1, 2010
New Way to Stop Smoking Found
Changing the days' regime will help to stop smoking, Finnish scientists have discovered.
People who are awake at night, smoke a lot than those who are going to bed earlier and wake up early.
This is the conclusion of scientists at the University of Helsinki in Finland. The study, which involved more than 23.000 twin pairs lasted more than 30 years. As a result, it became clear that "owls" who stayed up past midnight, smoked almost twice as much as "larks" who are accustomed to getting up with the dawn.
In addition, they discovered another pattern - nighters for a long time could not stop smoking.
Study leader Professor Ulla Broms believes that the main reason for this phenomenon is that nicotine exerts a strong stimulating effect on the body, fending off sleep.
Social factor is also important. People who are accustomed to stay up late, usually spend their time in bars or nightclubs, where usually it is a lot of smoke. Thanks to this environment, developing the habit of smoking, and virtually there is no opportunity to get rid of it.
Scientists reported their study on September 30 in the Journal of "Addiction", suggest that changes in sleep patterns will help people with nocturnal lifestyle to stop smoking.
Oct 29, 2010
Scientists Discovered "Sobriety Gene"
U.S. researchers have discovered a gene that determines the body's sensitivity to alcohol.
Researchers from the University of North Carolina, led by Professor Kirk Vilgelmsen genes studied 237 students, one of whose parents had alcohol dependence.
Having conducted a series of experiments, scientists have found an individual predisposition to alcoholism of each participant and then compared the data with the results of genetic research. Analysis allowed us to conclude that the body's response to alcohol is the location of gene CYP2E1 at the end of 10-chromosome.
Gene CYP2E1, known as the "gene of sobriety", is present in nearly 10-20% of the population. It enhances the sensitivity to alcohol, making the body more easily and quickly to break down the alcohol, and a man gets drunk much faster than his drinking pals.
CYP2E1 gene is located at the end of chromosome 10 and plays an important role in metabolism.
- The findings shed light on how our brain responds to alcohol - said Vilgelmsen. - Alcohol leads to the appearance in the brain of a large number of free radicals. Particularly active this process is for people with a genetic sensitivity to alcohol.
The researchers hope their discovery will help in the fight against alcoholism. For example, you can create drugs that affect gene CYP2E1, by which alcohol-dependent people will be able to get rid of addiction.
The report of this study will be published in the journal "Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research" in January, 2011.
Oct 28, 2010
Fish Will Protect Liver Disease
Eating fatty fish species can protect from chronic diseases.
Specialists of the U.S. Agricultural Research Service at the University of California at Davis have studied how the components of fish oil may protect against chronic diseases.
Scientists within two months of 50 mice were fed food containing omega-3 fatty acids and then examined the rodents. Researchers wondered whether the components of fish oil - docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acid - to neutralize the pernicious influence of the other fatty acid CLA, which is part of some food additives.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is one of the most popular natural remedies for weight loss and following proportions keeping. However, an excess of this acid (trans-10, cis-12 CLA) may lead to dangerous side effects, such as insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
The researchers found that DHA protects the body from both the development of insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Acid, EPA is only partially helps prevent the development of liver disease and does not protect against diabetes.
As the next step scientists will conduct research involving adult volunteers who are in pre-diabetic state. Without treatment pre-diabetic condition can lead to diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - cirrhosis or liver cancer.
Nutritionists advise to regularly consume fish. Thanks to the information contained in it acid DHA, the body begins to make better use insulin and thus may delay the development of diabetes and prevent liver disease.
More detailed research of American scholars can be found in the October issue of the Journal of Agricultural Research.
Oct 27, 2010
Aspirin Protects Against Colon Cancer
Daily aspirin may reduce by a quarter the risk of colon cancer.
Employees of the University of Oxford claim that aspirin can be used not only to prevent strokes and heart attacks, but also as a tool that can prevent the development of colon cancer.
After analyzing data on the impact on human health of regular aspirin, scientists have found that this drug can reduce the risk of colon cancer by 24%, and mortality from this disease - by 35%.
The study, which lasted 20 years, participated 14.000 volunteers. All of them for a long time taking aspirin in small doses. According to doctors, that is exactly what could protect against this dangerous cancer.
Experts urge those at increased risk of developing colon cancer - those who are overweight and those in whose families had a history of the disease - to think about preventive measures. However, recourse to them is only after consulting your doctor.
- It is known that aspirin may slightly lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Now it turns out that aspirin is very effective for the prevention of colon cancer ... I am sure that with time it will be shown that aspirin may protect from other types of cancer - said the lead researcher, Professor Peter Rothwell.
On the research of scientists from Oxford University said the medical journal Lancet.
Oct 26, 2010
Anger Is Bad For The Heart
Scientists have found that aggressive and hostile people have artery walls thicker that represents a threat to the heart.
Anger undermines the health. This was proved by the example of American scientists over 5.600 inhabitants of the Italian island of Sardinia. First, the researchers assessed the degree of irritability of the islanders and their desire to manipulate others, and then measured the neck (carotid) artery. The thickening of the walls of the carotid artery indicates the risk of heart attack and stroke.
It turned out that the rigid and uncompromising people have their artery wall neck much thicker than peaceful research participants.
Three years later the researchers took measurements again. It turned out that the people who will readily become angery and love to manipulate, the tendency to thickening of the arteries was preserved.
According to lead researcher, researcher at the National Institute on Aging U.S. Angelina Sutin, supports most types of conflict and selfish nature of the risks to suffer from cardiovascular disease to 40% more than the calm and friendly men and women.
In general, the stronger sex are prone to thickening of vascular walls, there were more but too aggressive ladies men caught up in this indicator. Even the records of such risk factors as smoking, had no impact on Grätzel pattern.
Sutin notes that generally increase the thickness of blood vessels occurs with age, but if a person constantly feels anger and resentment by other people, the process can begin in youth.
As the authors say, although the study involved the villagers, the results are also regarded to citizens.
To maintain health the researchers urge a fix traits such as selfishness, hostility, anger, cynicism and arrogance. A person should try to be more kind and tolerant, although it is not easy in today's world.
More information about the results of a study is reported in the online issue of the journal Hypertension.
Oct 25, 2010
Tablets From Hunger Will Deceived The Brain
Scientists are developing pills that will restrain the brain from thinking about food.
Deciding to lose a few pounds one is confronted with difficulties. During the diet it is very important to balance physical activity and calorie intake, so that the body had slight energy deficit. How to cope with this difficult task if in response to your persistent hours spent at the gym, the body asks for a dinner serving more?
Scientists from the University of Montreal (A Université de Montréal) are developing pills on the basis of leptin, which will help to not think about food. New drug to help deal with hunger by convincing the brain that the body is not hungry.
Leptin is a peptide hormone that is secreted by fat cells and is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and body weight. It reduces appetite, increases energy expenditure, changes the metabolism of fats and glucose, either by direct influence or activation of specific structures in the central nervous system.
Leptin in the blood increases with obesity and decreases with decreasing amount of adipose tissue. The normal increase in leptin suppresses hunger. Reduced leptin levels after a significant weight loss causes increased appetite and subsequent recovery of weight.
These designs are based on studies published by scientists at the University of Montreal in 2006. Then the researchers showed that up to 80% of the cells of the stomach are able to synthesize leptin, regulating hunger. From the first piece of food the cells of the stomach throw into the bloodstream a dose of leptin. Leptin, produced by the stomach has nothing to do with leptin that is accumulated in fatty tissues.
Research scientists shed light on understanding how the protein is responsible for the feeling of fullness. Given that leptin alone is unable to "survive" in the harsh conditions of high acidity of the stomach, it needes a "helper" which will take it through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and forward into the bloodstream and then into the brain. Based on the unraveling of this mystery, scientists decided to create a pill that "prohibit the brain to be hungry."
- Leptin-based pills will give a person the feeling of fullness and will curb his appetite. Thus the person will be much easier to say goodbye to the hated overweight - says Dr. Cammisotto.
- Experiments with mice showed that animals with inadequate synthesis of leptin in the body are constantly hungry. These mice experienced uncontrolled hunger and became so thick that they faced difficulties during the movement - said Professor Moïse Bendayan.
Thus, scientists hope to increase the content of leptin in the blood without the extra calories that will help to cope with hunger and lose weight.
Oct 22, 2010
Drink Pomegranate Juice Instead Of Viagra
It was found a delicious cure for impotence
It is known that pomegranate juice is rich in antioxidants that help increase blood flow to the penis. The specialists were able to prove that this juice acts the same way as drugs for impotence.
Drugs that enhance erections, enriched by nitric oxide, which greatly accelerates the dilation of blood vessels, experts explained. Scientists conducted an experiment in which was attended by 53 volunteers aged from 21 to 70 years who have suffered sexual dysfunction. All study participants drank a glass of pomegranate juice before dinner for a month.
The results showed that more than half of them said they had success in romantic pleasures. The researchers say that pomegranate juice has great potential in treating patients suffering from erectile dysfunction. Since ancient times people were grateful for grenade for its healing properties, especially the ability to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and prostate cancer.
According to experts, it was in this amazing fruit contains more antioxidants than other fruits (apples, currants, etc.), red wine and green tea.
Oct 21, 2010
Carrots Will Help Strengthen Memory
Luteolin substance found by scientists in carrots and olive oil helps to reduce age-related inflammation in the brain and improve memory.
Scientists from the University of Illinois (USA) found in carrot vegetable substance luteolin, which helps to combat pathological processes developing in the brain with age. Luteolin reduces the risk of inflammatory processes that negatively affect memory.
Their conclusions the researchers make based on the results obtained in the course of experiments with laboratory mice. Adult young mice aged 3 to 6 months and older mice (age 2 years), were fed with ordinary food or food with the addition of luteolin during four weeks. The researchers then tested their memory and measured the levels of inflammation of the hippocampus - a part of the brain responsible for memory and spatial awareness.
It was found that older mice had higher levels of inflammation in their brain and they coped worse with tests aimed at identifying memory than young adults. A more mature mice that had luteolin in their diet showed better results in education and jobs on a memory test than the same old rodents with ordinary diet.
The fact is that during the natural aging of immune cells in the brain begin to produce inflammatory molecules that cause problems with memory. According to scientists, luteolin contributes to inhibition of production of these inflammatory molecules in the brain.
Previously, luteolin was found in pepper, celery, pepper mint, rosemary and chamomile. Healthy and balanced diet that includes all of these products, potentially reduces the risk of inflammation in the brain associated with age-related factors and improve brain function.
Oct 20, 2010
Air Purifiers Cause Asthma
The compounds of ozone and nicotine which are formed by using air purifiers, can lead to the development of asthma, say U.S. scientists.
Everybody has heard about the dangers of passive smoking. However, it turns to be harmful even that nicotine which is evolved by clothes that have been for a long time in a smoke-filled room. Nicotine has the ability to accumulate in clothes and gradually evolve in the environment for several months. In this case, the use of air purifiers to kill tobacco odors is undesirable because it results in a dangerous combination of nicotine and ozone.
Scientists from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using a powerful source of X-rays and ultraviolet light measured the concentration of substances that are formed during the reaction of nicotine and ozone. It turned out that as a result of the so-called ultrafine particles - carbon and amines, which are dissolved in the air. These substances can trigger asthma.
- According to our data, under the reaction of nicotine and ozone are produced organic aerosols the particles of which have a size smaller than 100 nanometers in diameter - said a chemist from the Department of the Environment Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, research director, Mohammed Suleiman. - Because of their small size, these particles penetrate freely into your lungs and trigger oxidative reactions that lead to lung disease.
The compounds are formed during the reaction of nicotine and ozone, provoke greater the development of asthma than nicotine itself, the researchers emphasize.
Although scientists agree with the conclusions of environmental organizations who warn about the dangers of ozone generators air, they note that the ozone concentration and nicotine in the experiment were at the upper mark of maximum admissible values for living premises.
The study was reported in the journal Public Library of Science.
Oct 19, 2010
Noise At Work Provokes Heart Diseas
Employees who are exposed to noise at the workplace, risk to develop cardiovascular diseases.
Long-lasting work in a place where around there is too much noise increases the risk of heart disease and blood vessels. This risk is particularly susceptible to male smokers. These conclusions were made by American scientists as a result of the study, which was attended by 6,000 employees of the U.S. population.
Employees of the University of British Columbia, used in their work a questionary of the Americans included in the national poll for the Study of Health and Nutrition (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). These survey participants data were recorded from 1999 to 2004.
Depending on working conditions, study participants were divided into two groups: workers, constantly subjected to long exposure to loud noise for at least three months, and all the rest. Study authors considered noise as strong that causes raising of the voice in order to be heard by next standing person.
According to the survey, 21 percent of the participants had to work under these conditions for 9 months or more. These people say the study authors, most often turned out to smokers and more overweight, compared with the works in more comfortable conditions.
Researchers' calculations, prolonged exposure to noise at work was associated with an increased possibility of angina in 2,9 times, coronary insufficiency - in 2 times, isolated diastolic hypertension - in 2,3 times. The highest risk of these diseases has been among men, participants younger than 50 years and smokers.
The data obtained suggest that the high level of noise in the workplace deserves attention as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, say the authors of the study.
Study report published in the journal Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
Oct 18, 2010
Grapefruit Prevent Diabetes
It turns out that it is not necessary to refuse from food - it is enough to add grapefruit to your diet.
Pharmaceutical companies have long been working on a drug that would make the body expend their own energy reserves, as it occurs during fasting. However, offered up till now drugs have serious side effects.
In their collaborative work scientists from the University of Hebryu in Jerusalem and Massachusetts General Hospital examined what impact on the human body has a grapefruit. They are interested in a chemical called naringin, which gives this fruit bitter taste.
They came to a startling conclusion. It turns out that binding to certain proteins in the liver, naringin enhances the destruction of fat and reduces the formation of harmful cholesterol. It also increases the sensitivity of tissues to insulin, which leads to a decrease in blood glucose concentration. Similar changes occur in the body after a long period of fasting.
Naringin acts like drugs that lower cholesterol and blood sugar. And, as a natural product, it is absolutely safe. Maybe soon naringin will become one of the components of the treatment of such common diseases as diabetes, diabetes type II, hyperlipidemia emetabolic syndrome.
The article was published in the journal Public Library of Science.
Oct 15, 2010
Fruit And Vegetables for Smokers
Eating a variety of fruits and vegetables protect smokers from lung cancer, but no more than a rejection of the bad habit.
Scientists have found that the a variety of fruits and vegetables on the table of smokers reduces the occurrence of traditional forms of lung cancer by 27%.
A study conducted by Dutch scientists was quite ambitious. More than 450,000 people from 10 European countries completed questionnaires about their eating habits, occupation, previous diseases, bad habits and physical activity. During the nine-year observation period the diagnosis of lung cancer was staged more than in 1,500 participants.
It was found that smokers are fed varied, and vegetarians risked ill squamous cell carcinoma of the lung at 27% less likely than people with poor diets. Squamous cell carcinoma develops in 25% -30% of all cases of lung cancer.
The study's author, a specialist in cancer epidemiology Dr. H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita from the National Institute of Public Health and Environment in the Netherlands said that the most important and effective method for controlling the disease was and remains the rejection of cigarettes. But, considering that in the world live a few million people who can not or do not want to part with them, ignoring their problems would be inhumane.
The types of fruits and vegetables in the diet should be as much as possible according to the journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.
Studies on certain types of vegetables did not give similar results. For example, earlier Finnish scientists have proven that smokers who are too keen on fruit and vegetable antioxidant beta-carotene and vitamin E have a higher chance to develop lung cancer.
Oct 14, 2010
Fish Keeps Boys From Depression
Eating fatty fish species helps to cope with depression in adolescent boys, girls however need something else.
The study on the impact of fish on the symptoms of depression was held in Japan - a country where this product is the basis of the menu. The subject of special interest for scientists are long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid complex of omega-3 - eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). They play an important role in neurotransmitter that protect against depression.
Kentaro Murakami, PhD from the University of Tokyo in Japan and his colleagues turned to the results of children survey (Ryukyus Child Health Study), living in two cities in the island province of Okinawa. They studied the results of a survey of almost 12,500 students from 12 to 15 years, dedicated to their diet. It contained information about how often adolescents eat fish rich in EPA and DHA (canned tuna, sardines, mackerel, salmon, trout, and yellowtail, herring, eel, white and freshwater fish).
Specialists have also analyzed the results of epidemiological assessment of depression. They managed to collect data on more than 6,500 students, where the number of boys and girls was roughly equal.
It turned out that depression affects more than 30% of young ladies and over 22% of gentlemen. But, as for the male half of the respondents, the use of fish containing the fatty acid complex of omega-3 is indeed possible to avoid this frustration, which can not be said about the women.
Arguing about it, the researchers suggested that the genetic component of depression in girls may be more evident, so the diet does not help them. According to another version, the female body accumulation of fatty acids is carried out more efficiently than men, so the benefits of EPA and DHA is still present.
The report about that scientific work was published in the journal "Pediatrics" in the online edition.
Oct 13, 2010
High Technology and Arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis is considered to be the disease of the elderly. However, a chronic inflammatory joint disease occur in children, even in a very early age.
Juvenile chronic arthritis leads to changes in the tissues of the joints and destruction. In addition to joints are affected internal organs and eyes, causing blindness.
According to official statistics in our country there are about 47,000 children suffering from rheumatic diseases, of which 20 000 with rheumatoid arthritis. Such children can not walk normally - musculoskeletal system ceases to function properly, which leads to early disability.
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis - one of the most frequent and most disabling rheumatic disease that occurs in children. Incidence - from 2 to 16 per 100 000 child population under the age of 16 years.
Even 5 - 10 years ago, a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis meant hopelessness. Treatment drugs simply "mutilated" children - children stopped growing up, and had little prospects for returning to normal life. Fortunately, modern drugs can dramatically change the fate of these children. The possibility of biological agents - drugs produced by genetic engineering means - are just fantastic. Classical immunosuppressants (cytostatics), which are still used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic diseases, were created to fight cancer. The use of cytotoxic drugs can be compared with the "carpet bombing" when are killed all dividing cells. The reproductive system of children often suffers from such treatment, which leads to infertility.
Unlike traditional drugs biological agents act selectively. In such diseases as rheumatoid arthritis, the body has a lot of specific molecules responsible for the destruction of the joints, pain, swelling, fever. Targeted biological agents are specific molecules, as a result of exposure to which the process will soon be terminated.
October 12 - is the World Arthritis Day. This event is held under the patronage of the European League Against Rheumatism - EULAR and aims to support patients with arthritis and to draw public attention to this problem.
The use of such drugs does not lead to serious side effects that are inevitable in the application of classical cytostatic agents. They do not cause infertility, hair loss, bone marrow suppression. A child normally grows, develops and becomes a full member of society.
Doctors from Children Health Science Center Rheumatism Department call them "miracle drugs". The children named them so because these drugs allow six weeks to cure absolutely non-curable patients.
However, the treatment of children with juvenile arthritis face a number of difficulties. The cost of a new generation of drugs is high - the annual rate for children with rheumatoid arthritis is between 15-30 000 euro. And to get such drugs can usually only in the federal centers.
Oct 12, 2010
Pregnancy And Diet
Diets of pregnant women may adversely affect the health of a baby.
Scientists from the University of Amsterdam found that hunger of pregnant women accelerates brain aging of the child.
For this experiment scientists have chosen a group of people born in the Netherlands "hunger winter" of 1944, when the country suffered from hunger because of World War II. During this period the menu of pregnant women was extremely poor and did not exceed the daily calorific value of the 600-800 kcal.
The first such test was conducted in 70-ies of XX century, but little difference between the control group and the volunteers was found. The second test conducted in 40 years, during which participants were asked to name the color of the words without thinking about its meaning, has shown that people born after 1944, experienced difficulties with its passing. In this case, the control group experienced no such problems.
Ultimately, the researchers concluded that the degradation of nerve tissue of the brain in people whose mothers during pregnancy had to restrict their diet, or addicted to dieting, comes much faster.
The researchers reported about this study in the journal "The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences".
Oct 11, 2010
A Mirror Will Make The Diagnosis
Scientists create electronic mirror that can measure the user's heart rate, blood pressure and blood oxygen levels.
Developed by scientists at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the device resembles in form with an ordinary mirror, in a corner of which is mounted the webcam. With its help the electronic device collects information about the changes in the brightness of individual areas of the face, involving the blood vessels, and thus determines the pulse of the person.
Experiments involving 12 volunteers confirmed the reliability of the developed system. Participants in the study were placed at a distance of 50 cm from the laptop, and using the normal web camera to record two videos no longer than a minute each. Participants in the experiment had to to sit quietly in the beginning and look at the camera, then they had to just move "naturally". A computer program itself found faces in the shots and analyzed the information collected with the expansion of the image using RGB canals.
According to the developers, the data obtained correspond to the indications of conventional sensor that was mounted on a finger, with an accuracy of up to three times per second. The system has successfully coped with the task even in the movement of the wearer, and could measure the pulse of the three men at once, simultaneously caught in the camera's lens.
Now the author of the scientific development of Ming-Jer By intends to expand the capabilities of his device and develop techniques to assess the respiratory rate, blood pressure and level of oxygen in the blood.
The new research of the scientists reports the journal "Optics Express".
Oct 8, 2010
Hair Will Tell About Of Infarction
Researchers found that in the presence of certain hormones in the hair it is possible to see the predisposition to heart attacks.
It is known that the risk of myocardial infarction is increased by stressful experiences. To determine how a person is prone to stresses is possible by measuring the levels of the hormone cortisol in the body. But the analysis of urine, blood or saliva can reveal the concentration of this hormone only in certain time.
Researchers from the University of Western Ontario in London, Canada, suggested to use hair analysis. As they note, in the sample length of 5 inches may be enclosed information about the level of cortisol in the body for five months.
Doctors carried out an experiment and surveyed two groups of patients. The first group comprised 56 patients admitted to hospital with myocardial infarction, the second - the same number of patients in intensive therapy, but getting there with other diagnoses.
It turned out that the first group had elevated cortisol levels in the hair. Other factors affecting the possibility of heart attack, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, in both groups were similar.
Thus, doctors concluded that high cortisol levels in hair may indicate a predisposition to heart attacks.
The research of Canadian scientists is presented in the magazine "Stress".
Oct 7, 2010
Scientists Invented The "Elixir" for life
Protein powder dissolved in water or added to foods can increase life expectancy.
A team led by Enzo Nizoli from the University of Milan (Università degli Studi di Milano), Italy, found that a special "cocktail" of amino acids increases the lifespan of mice by 12%.
The researchers conducted experiments on adult mice, in which rodents were given a cocktail of three amino acids - valine, leucine and isoleucine. The experiment showed: mice that received "elixir", lived 80 days longer than the rest. In addition, they have become stronger and sturdier.
Scientists believe that if people would give an additional powder for about 10 years of life. In addition, in their opinion, the 'elixir' is able to exert a beneficial influence on those who have lung disease or heart failure.
Experts advise starting to use the amino acids in 55 years or so, but not earlier. To young, healthy body "elixir of life" would do little or even nothing.
The research appeared in the magazine "Cell Metabolism".
Oct 6, 2010
In addition to healthy fats there are the so-called "bad" - or "saturated fats". They are high in saturated fatty acids, and they tend to raise both total cholesterol level and "bad" cholesterol. Such fats are found in beef, pork, butter, cheese, cream, sour cream, ice cream, whole milk.
To avoid excess weight, cardiovascular disease and other troubles with health, avoid harmful saturated fats in your diet and replace them with useful.
1. Try to use a minimum of fat in cooking. Use unrefined vegetable oil, low-calorie salad dressings, lemon juice, vinegar, salad instead of mayonnaise.
2. Prefer olive oil to all the rest.
3. Get a good dish with non-stick coating. So you will greatly reduce the amount of fat used in cooking.
4. To reduce the amount of harmful fat meat and other foods you can cook, bake, grill or steam.
5. When baking, replace 1 / 3 the right amount of butter or margarine with vegetable oil.
6. Reduce consumption of egg yolk.
7. To reduce the amount of animal fat in the diet, choose lean meats and nonfat dairy products.
8. Read the label with the product. "Correct" foods should not contain more than 3 grams of fat per 100 kcal. Saturated fats are trans-fats are often found in baked goods, dry biscuits, margarines, chocolate pastes, sauces. Be careful!
Please do not forget that, despite the reputation of "useful" and "bad" fats, they are all fairly high in calories, and excessive consumption of even the most healthy and 'healthy' fats can easily lead to weight gain.
Oct 5, 2010
Fats And Their Classification
The word "fat" itself associativelly causes negative reaction. We are used to believe that the fat will certainly lead to obesity. And so the people drink milk, consume only foods low in fat ... and do not get slimmer. Why? Just becuase there are "healthfy" and "bad" fats. In fact fats are essential to any organism for normal functioning. Deficiency of fat can be detrimental to health. But at the same time you should know how many and which fats to include in your diet.
"Useful" fat or "fatty acid". They are formed during the breakdown of fat and are a source of energy for the body's cells and the essential elements of any healthy diet, because it oxygenates the blood system of the body, are involved in the formation and operation of new cells, maintained in good condition the skin, slow the aging process, contribute to the maintenance of good fitness and weight loss.
There are several types of fatty acids: Omega 3, Omega-6 (polyunsaturated) and omega 9 (monounsaturated). The human body itself can produce only Omega-9, and omega-3 and Omega-6 can be obtained only with food.
Monounsaturated fats are considered to be the most useful. They lower the level of cholesterol and raise "good" cholesterol. Are found in almonds, avocados, cashews, macadamia nut, natural peanut butter, olive oil, pistachios, sesame oil, sesame seeds.
Polyunsaturated fats are the second by "usefulness". They simultaneously reduce the level and "bad", and "good" cholesterol. Found in corn oil, pumpkin seeds and sunflower in fatty fish (tuna, mackerel and salmon), other seafood (oysters, sardines, lobster and shrimp), as well as in plant foods (flaxseeds and oil from it, hemp seed and hemp seed oil, soybean oil and walnuts).
Omega-3 fats support the activity of the brain, enhance memory. They are necessary for proper fetal development. These fatty acids help to cope with stress and are useful for vision.
Omega-6 reduce cholesterol, strengthen the immune system, supports peripheral and central nervous system involved in the synthesis of sex hormones.
Omega-9 prevents the deposition of cholesterol on vascular walls. These fats are digested easier than Omega-3 and Omega-6, so the olive oil in cooking is preferable then sunflower and corn.
Oct 4, 2010
Viagra Helps In Cancer Treatment
It turned out that impotence treatment drug increases the efficiency of chemotherapy.
Doxorubicin is frequently used for the treatment of malignant tumors of the prostate and other organs of the physicians - an antibiotic that kills tumor cells. However, this drug is very toxic, and in addition to the therapeutic effect it causes irreversible damage to heart muscle.
Employees of Virginia Commonwealth University (USA) have discovered that Viagra increases the antitumor activity of doxorubicin in prostate cancer cells, accelerating the destruction of tumor cells and does not affect healthy cells.
The study, which lasted 15 years, scientists leaded by Rakesh Kukreja found that adding the drug doxorubicin reduces tumor size more than just antitumor drug. In this case, sildenafil (international name Viagra) protects the myocardium from both the short and long term damage from doxorubicin.
In the near future scientists will conduct clinical trials when they will test the effectiveness of therapy using both drugs.
The research is published in the magazine "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences".
Oct 1, 2010
10 Most Useful Products
Want to protect yourself from disease? Then include in your daily diet the following great products:
Benefits: Many people do not eat avocados because of the high fat content. However, this is the fruit helps to lower blood cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of cancer and diabetes. In addition, avocados contain antioxidants.
Nutrients: Vitamins E, C and B6, potassium, fiber, vitamin C and folate.
Recipe: spread on bread and melt the top slice of nonfat cheese. Cover with a circle of tomato.
Benefits: contain antioxidants and vitamin C, which protects the blood vessels and improves iron absorption. All this reduces the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Especially if you eat apples with the peel.
Nutrients: fiber and vitamin C.
Recipe: Cut the apple in small slices and mix with lettuce.
Use: All berries are very nutritious and are an excellent preventive of many diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, diabetes and coronary heart disease. Regular consumption of blueberries improve memory and slow down the aging process. In addition, studies show that blueberries are better than others berries help to prevent cancer.
Nutrients: fiber, vitamins C and K, and manganese.
Recipe: Combine blueberries with yogurt or cottage cheese.
Use: Broccoli belongs to the same family as spinach, cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale and fodder. Broccoli is very nutritious and helps preventing diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain cancers.
Nutrients: calcium, potassium, folate, fiber, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, manganese, vitamins B, C and K.
Recipe: Lightly fry in a little olive oil, add garlic and chicken broth.
Use: Try to eat fish at least twice a week. Particularly useful are salmon, herring and sardines. It contains useful for cardiac omega-3 fats. Fish dishes reduce the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, diabetes, arthritis and depression.
Nutrients: B vitamins, phosphorus, protein, selenium and omega-3 fats.
Recipe: River salmon is more useful than that grown in special ponds, as there is less likelihood of chemicals such as mercury. Pour a piece of salmon freshly squeezed orange or lemon juice, salt, pepper and bake until done.
6. Legumes (beans, crushed peas, lentils)
Benefits: Legumes provide energy for many hours. In them a lot of fiber, which reduces the risk of heart disease and normalizes blood sugar levels. Legumes also reduce the risk of cancer. All legumes, especially soybeans, are rich in protein, so they play a very important role in a vegetarian diet.
Recipe: Rinse the canned beans and add them to your favorite salad.
Benefits: Mushrooms stimulate the immune system. They help prevent and treat cancer, viral disease, normalize blood cholesterol levels and blood pressure.
Nutrients: Fiber, protein, B vitamins, vitamins C, D, folate, iron, zinc, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, copper and selenium.
Recipe: Fry the finely chopped mushrooms, onions and zucchini in a little olive oil. If you add tomato sauce, you get a useful addition to pasta dishes.
8. Walnuts and ALMOND
Benefits: Contains a lot of nutrients and beneficial effects on the heart. Monounsaturated fats, which are present in almonds, reduce blood cholesterol levels. In the walnuts have a small amount of omega-3 fats. Although in general nuts - very fat and calorie food, they allow you to lose weight because they contain protein, fiber and healthy fats provide a feeling of satiety and help not to overeat.
Nutrients: Magnesium, vitamin E, fiber, riboflavin, magnesium, iron, calcium.
Recipe: Toast a slice of grilled whole-wheat bread, spread cream cheese on top and sprinkle with crushed walnuts or almond shavings.
Use: In the flaxseed contains omega-3 fats that reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Nutrients: Magnesium, phosphorus, copper, fiber, thiamin, manganese, potassium and zinc.
Recipe: Sprinkle flax seed cereal, yogurt or cottage cheese. You can also add them to the dairy desserts.
Use: This product lately a lot of talk. In garnets, three times more antioxidants than wine or green tea. Pomegranate juice helps prevent heart disease and stroke. Drinking pomegranate juice for a long time, slows the aging process and prevents certain forms of cancer.
Nutrients: Vitamin C and potassium.
Recipe: Sprinkle seeds of pomegranate fruit and vegetable salads. Add them to yogurt and oatmeal.
Sep 30, 2010
10 Principles Of A Healthy Nutrition
1. No product provides the body with all necessary nutrients, therefore our food should be as diverse as possible, but food of plant origin should dominate in our menu.
2. For a single meal are enough 300-500 grams. Average daily calorie should be 1600-1800 kcal.
3. Organism having "acid" ambient intoxicates faster, which leads to obesity and a host of other diseases. Therefore it is necessary to "alkalify" internal ambient by eating vegetables, fruits and mineral water containing hydrocarbons.
4. It is necessary to exclude from a diet of fast food, refined sugar, condensed milk, sausages and other products treated with chemicals. Vegetable oils should not be hydrogenated. With great caution should be used products with extended expiry date and sweeteners. Reduce as possible the time of thermal processing of products.
5. Fruits and vegetables (except potatoes) should be consumed several times a day of more than 400 grams per day. Consumption of vegetables should not exceed the consumption of fruit. Vegetables and fruits are a source of antioxidants, folic acid, iron, vitamins and minerals that reduce the risk of developing high blood pressure, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases.
6. Dairy products are low in fat and salt (yogurt, cheese, cottage cheese) should be consumed daily. If you have difficulty digesting lactose, you need to eat more fish and green leafy salads.
7. Reduce the consumption of meat and exclude fatty meats from the diet. At the same time legumes are an excellent source of protein.
8. Total consumption of salt, including salt, contained in finished products must not exceed 6 grams (1 teaspoon) per day. Canned, salted, smoked foods are not recommended to eat daily. Food should be moderately salt directly on eating and use of iodized salt.
9. Complex carbohydrates (sweets, cakes and pastries) should not exceed 10% of calories consumed daily.
10. Compensate the deficiency of vitamins, minerals and micro-elements, because to get enough all necessary substances with food is almost impossible.
Sep 29, 2010
A Toothbrush Prolongs The Life
The bacteria that cause dental plaque can cause a heart attack, researchers found.
Scientists at Bristol University led by Professor Howard Jenkinson proved that regular and thorough brushing to maintain a healthy heart and prolong your life.
British researchers found that those inhabitants of the mouth as the bacteria streptococcus, having penetrated into the blood can synthesize on its surface protein PadA, which causes red blood cells stick together and form plaques.
- You have to understand that in order to minimize the risk of heart disease one should not only stick to a diet, monitor their pressure, cholesterol levels and maintaining physical activity, but also take care of dental hygiene - emphasizes Jenkinson. - Lack of attention to cleanliness of teeth leads to bleeding gums, through which the bacteria can penetrate into the blood.
The results of their study researchers reported at the September meeting of the English "Society for General Microbiology" in the city of Nottingham.
Sep 28, 2010
Pregnant Women Can Be Treated For Herpes
Drugs for treatment this viral diseases are recognized as safe for health of the fetus.
According to statistics, the herpes simplex virus occurs in 1% of women in the first pregnancy trimester. Traditionally, the symptoms of this viral disease which is characterized by the appearance of blisters on the skin and mucous membranes, are facilitated by using such drugs as acyclovir (Zovirax), valacyclovir (Valtrex) and famciclovir (Famvir). These medicines are considered safe, but data on their first three months, especially important for fetal development was still not enough.
Danish scientists have decided to spare women from considering the risks and analyzed the history of almost 840.000 births from January 1996 to September 2008. All trial participants had no chromosomal abnormalities, genetic syndromes, congenital malformations or viral infections.
Herpes Simplex - a viral disease caused by herpes simplex virus of two serotypes - HSV-1 and HSV-2.
More than 1.800 pregnant women who used early in pregnancy the above mentioned three drugs, had 40 babies born with major malformations (2.2%), those who did not use them - almost 20.000 children (2.4%).
Based on these data, experts have come to the conclusion that birth defects are not associated with antiviral drugs. Using the most popular drug acyclovir with more than 1500 pregnant women, violations were noted in 32 children (2%), from valacyclovir - in 229 (over 3%), famciclovir, which was prescribed not so often - at 26 (almost 4%).
- Pregnant women who need treatment for herpes in the first trimester should not fear of taking anti-viral drugs, the safest and most common of which is Acyclovir - says study author Dr. Bjorn Pasternak, who represents the department of epidemiological studies in the Danish Statens Serum Institut in Copenhagen.
The scientific results were presented in the August issue of the "Journal of the American Medical Association".
Sep 27, 2010
Bowel Diseases Are Caused By The Lack Of Vit
British scientists have found that bowel inflammation in children is often combined with a decrease in the level of vitamin D.
The study was conducted by the colleagues from Alderhey Children Hospital (Liverpool). For their work scientists have selected 60 children with newly identified inflammatory bowel disease. Among these, 39 babies suffered from Crohn's disease and 21 children - from ulcerative colitis. The average age of children was 12.2 years.
Crohn's disease - a chronic autoimmune inflammation of the digestive tract that can affect all of its divisions, from the mouth to the rectum. Is characterized by the formation of ulcers and scars, lesions adjacent to lymph nodes.
In all the children the researchers examined vitamin D in their blood. It turned out that for any form of inflammation in the gut level of this vitamin has been reduced.
After this the scientists assessed the impact of a lack of vitamin D on bone mineral density. However, this figure in all young patients remained in the norm, that is, bone tissue did not suffer. In addition, the researchers tested whether the effect of vitamin D has the impact on the disease severity and symptoms. A similar relationship was not detected.
Ulcerative colitis - a chronic progressive inflammatory disease that affects the colon. The reason is uncertain. The disease is characterized by the appearance of ulcers and serious complications: bleeding, perforation, ulcers, narrowing of the lumen of the intestine and others.
The head of the research, Dr Wael Al-Matari is convinced in the need for additional research on this issue. Scientists have yet to figure out how vitamin D deficiency affects the patient intestine and vice versa.
Sep 24, 2010
Sport Is Not Always Useful For Young men
U.S. scientists have found that girls participating in marathon races, is reduced the accumulation of minerals in bone tissue.
It is known that physical exercises at a young age is very useful for the bones. However, this only applies to short intense workouts with alternating types of training. At the same time, the static sports with long loads on the bone does not contribute to their health.
This question was decided for further study by the research staff of the University of California (USA). To do this, they took 93 young girls who are professionally engaged in running long distance. The control group included 90 young track athletes who specialize in other sports.
All girls completed the questionnaires, where the noted features of their training and during the menstrual cycle. Researchers measured the height and weight of their wards and studied by X-ray bone mineral density.
It turned out that the long distance runners the medium height, weight, body mass index, percentage of adipose tissue in the body and the number of menses in the past year was significantly reduced than other athletes. In addition, in girls-stayers was reduced bone mineral density, particularly in the lumbar spine. A weight gain of bone tissue with age is much slower.
Head of Research, Dr. Michael Barrak explained that high-intensity workouts with alternating types of physical activity, allow the body to develop more actively. At the same time, Marathon does not allow you to quickly redistribute energy, which affects the slow growth of bones. It is important to consider when drawing up training programs for young athletes.
For more details on the work of American scientists see the article that was published in the "Journal of Bone and Mineral Research".
Sep 23, 2010
What You Need To Give Birth To A Girl
Dutch scientists claim that a woman may choose the sex of their child, adjusting the diet. At the same time, father's diet does not affect the child's sex, say researchers.
If a future mother wants to give birth to a girl, then she should give up the banana and eat more cheese and legumes, found scientists from the University of Maastricht.
The effectiveness of this a diet was confirmed during the five-year study, which was attended by over 170 women in Europe aged 23-42 years. All the women had already children, and for boys only, and they all wanted to give birth to girls. Although most participants dropped out, unable to stick to a strict diet, 80% of those who have followed all the recommendations before the end, born a girl.
According to experts, the main thing - it abstain from eating foods rich in sodium and potassium, such as anchovies, olives, bacon, salami, smoked salmon, shrimp, rice with spices, blue cheese, potatoes, processed meat, bread and pastries.
Instead those wishing to have girls should eat foods rich in calcium and magnesium. These include yogurt, hard cheese, canned salmon, rhubarb, spinach, almonds, oatmeal, broccoli and oranges, as well as rich Maniema Brazil nuts and cashew nuts, cereals and legumes.
Women also need to reduce salt intake and eat more dairy products, vegetables, fruits, meat and rice.
In addition to nutrition is also important the time of intimacy. Then the chances of conceiving a girl increase significantly, the researchers note.
- The results show that diet and regular sex life increases the possibility to give birth to a girl. The key role playes exactly diet - they note. - But the greatest effect is achieved when using both methods.
Previous studies have shown that sperm carrying the female chromosome are not only stronger but also more tenacious than the "male". "Male" is, though are distinguised by a greater mobility, at the same time have a shorter life. Therefore, women who give birth to a girl, you should avoid proximity to the period of ovulation, when sperm with a Y-chromosome have an advantage.
Previously, scientists have studied the processes that affect the sex of a child solely on the animals. This study was first conducted in humans, writes British newspaper The Daily Mail.
Sep 22, 2010
An Artificial Cornea Will Recover Man's Eyes
Biosynthetic cornea not only completely replaces the real one, but it even survives in the body better than the donor.
The resulting collaboration of scientists from Sweden and Canada, an artificial cornea has successfully passed the first phase of testing.
Dr. Mae Griffith of the University of Linköping and the Swedish Research Institute at the Hospital of the University of Ottawa and her colleagues used made in laboratory conditions collagen, which was shaped as cornea. After a series of tests, together with Professor Per Fagerholm, University of Linköping, they began to feel it at 10 Swedish patients suffering from keratoconus or central scarring of the cornea. Each of them underwent surgery to remove damaged tissue and corneal implantation of synthetic structured recombinant human collagen.
Cornea is a thin transparent cell and collagen layer. Due to its transparency, it performs the function of "window" in the eyeball: transmits light and helps you to focus. The most common cause of blindness worldwide have the diseases leading to corneal opacity.
Clinical observations were made for two years. During this time, researchers found that its own cells and nerves of patients had grown into the implants, and corneal acquired sensitivity to touch and the ability to produce tears for the oxygen supply eye. Rejection biosynthetic horn shells did not happen as opposed to traditionally used donor tissue, and therefore did not need to take drugs that suppresses the immune system. In 6 out of 10 participants vision was restored, and when they picked up the appropriate contact lenses, they began to see, as if they were made of human cornealtransplant from a donor.
Keratoconus - a degenerative non-inflammatory eye disease in which the cornea becomes thinner and takes a conical shape. Keratoconus can cause severe visual impairment. Most patients complain of photophobia, double vision, blurring the image.
Based on these optimistic results, scientists have already begun developing new implants with the use of advanced biomaterials, shared Dr. Fagerholm.
Maybe soon biosynthetic cornea will help millions of patients and restore sight in the other eye diseases, where the only option is transplantation, has been postponed because of the expectations of suitable donor.
Details can be found in magazine reports "Science Translational Medicine».
Sep 21, 2010
Stress Aggravate Women's Problems
Women who experience stress at the beginning of menstrual cycle have stronger signs of premenstrual syndrome.
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) occurs during ovulation and may last the first few days of menstrual cycle. Doctors believe that the PMS includes 150 different symptoms that can occur in various combinations. But the main syndrome symptoms may include headache, tension, or breast tenderness, swelling, bloating or abdominal pain, weight gain, unstable mood, irritability, fatigue, increased appetite.
According to statistics, premenstrual syndrome exposed from 50 to 80% of all women in the world. Many of them, fortunately, have PMS in a fairly mild form. But about 10% of women premenstrual syndrome is so severe that interfere with normal social and family life.
American scientists from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), University of Massachusetts at Amherst and the State University of New York decided to identify the factors that could predict women whose PMS will occur especially hard. Knowing them, you can try to weaken or prevent the manifestation of premenstrual syndrome.
Fertility Monitor - a system for determining ovulation. The device is based on the temperature determines the status of fertility and predicts when ovulation will occur, helping to plan the sexual acts.
The study involved 250 women aged 18 to 44 years, with no chronic illnesses and not taking any hormonal preparations. To track the phase of menstrual cycle, each women was give the fertility monitor. The level of stress during each week of the menstrual cycle and was determined through questionnaires. The same researchers were interested in being of women during ovulation and during the following week for her. Study lasted for two menstrual cycles.
It was found that women who experienced stress at the beginning of the cycle, physiological and psychological symptoms of PMS are likely to be powerful. Moreover, the stress in the first cycle increases the possibility of serious problems in the next cycle, even if in the second cycle a woman is experiencing moderate stress. But if high levels of stress persist over two cycles, the probability of a heavy flow of PMS increased by 25%.
In an article published in the "Journal of Women's Health", head of research Audra Gollenberg notes that stress has a significant influence on the severity of PMS. Therefore, to prevent or relieve manifestations syndrome can be used non-drug methods of stress relief - physical exercise or various relaxation techniques.
Sep 20, 2010
Good Mood Will Protect Against Infarction
Researchers for the first time were able to trace the relationship between heart disease and emotional state.
Scientists led by Karina Davidson - Director of the Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health at Columbia University Medical Center - collected data about two thousand residents of New Scotland (Canada). Experts assessed the risk of cardiovascular disease of participants. The survey also collected information on the degree of depression, hostility, excitement and joy of each participant and determined the individual level of positive emotions.
After 10 years, scientists once again conducted a survey of people who participated in the first study. After excluding factors related to age, gender and several other factors, they found that the risk of cardiovascular disease in people with a positive attitude was one-fifth lower than those who rarely experienced positive emotions. And in most "unhappy" participants risk of heart attack was 22% higher than in those who at least sometimes able to have fun.
The researchers did not find an exact explanation of this fact yet.
- Our first study, which identified the relationship between the level of positive emotions, and cardiovascular diseases - said Professor Karina Davidson. - We have several hypotheses on this issue. Firstly, people with a positive outlook may have more time to rest. This activates the baroreflex and parasympathetic regulation, which leads to slower heart rate. Secondly, positive-minded people quickly overcome stressful situations, which reduces the physiological burden.
The study is published in "The European Heart Journal".
Sep 18, 2010
Blood Cancer Will Soon Be Defeated
Scientists have found a way to prevent the passage of the blood cancer from chronic stage to acute, that will save the lives of many cancer patients.
Blood cancer affects the blood cells, which as a result of losing their ability to differentiate, i.e to become a fully-featured cells. In the blood meanwhile increases the number of immature white blood cells, so scientifically blood cancer is called leukemia.
Specialists from Medical Center, Duke University, studied a form of blood cancer - chronic myelogenous leukemia - and ways to prevent its passage into the acute phase of the disease, which leads to rapid death of the patient.
Those who are familiar with Japanese culture, perhaps, are interested in why one of the proteins was named after Miyamoto Musashi, a samurai that has developed a style of fighting with two swords. This is due to the fact that this protein was first discovered in fruit flies, in which the lack of it caused the appearance of two long setae, similar to Japanese swords.
Since the development of leukemia occurs due to the fact that hematopoietic cells stop growing up, researchers have focused on substances that regulate this process. Conducted experiments on mice showed that the protein Numb promotes the maturation of blood cells, but it blocks the action of another protein - Musashi. Thus, it contributes to tumor development. In rodents, on which were investigated these processes, the transition from chronic leukemia in the acute level of Musashi grew up to 10 times.
The authors of the work concluded that lowering the level of this protein may contribute to the maturation of blood cells and stop the development of cancer. In addition, measurement of Musashi can be used also for diagnosis of early stages of the disease.
- Studies of leukemia in humans have confirmed our findings - said study leader Dr. Tannishta Reya. - Moreover, it seems that this mechanism can work in the treatment of brain cancer or breast cancer, in which also the rise of Musashi.
The results were published in the journal "Nature".
Sep 9, 2010
Women's hands inspire confidence
Women's ability to force somebody to the risk by her touch is now scientifically proved.
All of us, as we know, come from childhood, so in one way or another we are used to encouraging, consoling and supporting mother's touches, which once accompanied our every step in the study of the huge and unknown world.
American scientists from Columbia University decided to check whether the importance of women's touche still retains and in the adult life.
They carried put an experiment where participants were welcomed by a man or a woman, and then they were asked to take the risk - making a significant investment, or by placing a large sum in the game. It turned out that their choice depended on the sex of the experimenter and the type of greeting. The inviting touch of a women to shoulder behind most of the participants contributed to agreement to go to a financial risk. If a woman greeted them with a handshake or words, such an effect was not observed.
Interestingly, a similar touch of a men did not motivate the desire to try one's luck. At the end of the study, all participants wrote answers to questions how confident they felt and willing to take risks. As it turned out, more confidence were those who were encouragingly patted on the shoulder by a woman.
The researchers concluded that this gesture of support from the fair sex awakens in man the memories of certainty and security, passed from mother in the childhood and causes similar feelings that may have a major impact on decision-making related to the degree of risk, and not only financial.
The findings of scientists are presented in the pages of the online version of the magazine "Psychological Science". This discovery will undoubtedly find many uses: casino or investment banks will want to use it to make people go to financial risk. Reassuring touch of a woman's hand could also inspire confidence doctor before a difficult operation or football striker before the match.
Sep 8, 2010
Chronic Pain Gene Identified
Determining the genetic source of chronic pain syndrome will help to develop new treatments for this disease.
Chronic pain is a serious problem for many people. According to statistics, it is found in 20% of patients undergoing surgery. The reason is the nervous system affection. Susceptibility to pain may be very different in two people, even in similar circumstances.
In search of relief for chronic pain scientists have turned to genetics. After working together, members of the Jewish University in Jerusalem (Israel), University of Toronto (Canada), Sanofi-Aventis (Germany) and the Karolina Institute (Sweden) found in laboratory mice at the chromosome 15 gene variants of the whole area, presumably related to pain syndrome.
Fine genetic mapping - a set of methods for analyzing subtle genetic structure of the genome, ie determine the exact localization of the gene on the chromosome.
To accurately determine the desired variant gene, Professor Ariel Darvasi and his colleagues used 2 ways to fine genetic mapping, narrowing the search to chromosome locus to an interval of 155 genes. With the help of the bioinformatics and analysis micromatrics entire genome was it was possible to calculate the culprit of chronic pain - they found a gene Cacgn2. Further tests using mutated versions of the gene showed that the behavior and electrophysiological responses of rodents to chronic pain show a steady role of the gene Cacgn2.
Further investigation has been carried out on humans. Researchers examined patients with chronic pain, which have not dissapeared at least six months after they were held a full or partial mastectomy because of the cancer. They have also been found to influence the options Cacgn2 to chronic pain.
The authors still refer to his discovery with caution, saying the need for further analysis. But now it is encouraging, since it provides an opportunity to develop a fundamentally new ways of treating the disease, reported in the online issue of the journal "Genome Research".
Sep 7, 2010
Arthritis protects against osteoporosis
Scientists found that women of menopausal age of inflammation of the intervertebral joints is a protective factor against development of spine osteoporosis.
Researchers at the University Hospital El Ayachi city Salé (Morocco) examined the relationship between the presence of signs of articular inflammation and markers of increased destruction of bone tissue. Among the inflammatory signs in the spinal joints scientists paid special attention to the narrowing of the intervertebral discs and the presence of osteopaths.
Bone spur - an abnormal growth on the surface of the bone. Typically, it occurs as a result of actions on bone deforming excessive loads, inflammation or metabolic minerals (primarily calcium). May appear in case of various diseases (eg, osteomyelitis or diabetes). Usually accompanied by pain and restriction of mobility in joints.
The study involved 280 women of menopausal age, who held X-ray examination of the lumbar vertebrae with the specification of bone mineral density. In addition, in the blood of all women scientists determined the concentration of osteocalcin protein and fragments of collagen type 1, which serve as markers of bone tissue.
In general, osteoarthritis spine doctors revealed almost at 90% of the study participants, and osteoporosis - from just over 30% of women. Inflammatory changes in the joints are often accompanied by the appearance of bony spines and contraction drives. It was found that the more marked was the narrowing of the inter-vertebral discs, the greater the mineral density and vertebrae was observed. Osteophytes not so strongly influenced bone density. Perhaps this is due to the fact that the majority of the fair sex bone spurs were not formed until the end.
The researchers also found that the narrowing of disc was linked with a lower concentration of fragments of collagen of type 1. This suggests that in case of arthritis bone tissue is not so activelly disjointed.
The results are quite comparable with the assumption that the inflammatory changes in the spine (in the first place, the narrowing of the intervertebral discs) protect the vertebrae from osteoporosis. This is due to slow process of resorption of bone tissue, says study leader, Dr. Linda Ihchou.
More information on the work of Moroccan scientists can be found in the online magazine "BMC Women's Health".
Sep 6, 2010
The drug for epilepsy
The use of valproic acid after stem cell transplantation of nervous tissue may help people with severe spinal injuries.
The spinal cord is very sensitive to damage. Unfortunately, unlike other tissues it cannot recover. Its injuries lead to partial or complete loss of sensitivity and violations of the functions of organs below the level of injury. Causes of injury may be different, but more than half of the injuries are the result of automobile accidents. Among people aged 16 - 30 years of spinal cord injury - the main cause of disability.
Scientists from the Institute of Science and Technology in the city of Nara under the leadership of Kinichi Nakashima conducted experiments on mice. In rodents damaged spinal cord, resulting in hind paws, was already lost the ability to move. Mice transplanted stem cells of the nervous tissue. These cells can develop into neurons and glial cells that fill the space between neurons. Under the action of valproic acid - the drug used in the treatment of epilepsy - stem cells transformed into the necessary neurons.
The researchers were able to show that new neurons to restore damaged neural networks, resulting in restored, though not entirely, the mobility of the legs. Removal of transplanted cells again led to a loss of motor function of limbs, confirming that it is the transplantation of stem cells of nervous tissue contributed to the restoration of motor functions paws.
Details of their study Japanese scientists have described in an article published on 16 August in the Journal of Clinical Research.
Sep 3, 2010
A perfect tan...Is it possible?
Getting a perfect tan is impossible, even if you lie on the beach completely naked. The fact is that some parts of the body react to the rays of the sun in different ways.
Scientists from Edinburgh University in Scotland conducted an experiment proving that the tan lies on the skin of the same man unequally. The study involved about 100 volunteers, who were exposed to ultraviolet radiation type B (UVB). Back and buttocks of participants received 6 doses of radiation. In addition, they had a shot of a red rash, which usually comes in a day after sunbathing. Many accept that the redness of the first signs of sunburn, but according to scientists, in this way the skin indicates its injury. A week later, experts evaluated the results. It was found that the slowest darkened buttocks of participants, while the back was significantly ahead of their effect on sunburn. The darkening of the skin, which is called "tan", is due to the development of the pigment melanin. This substance protects the skin, preventing it from absorbing too much harmful ultraviolet radiation type B (UVB).
According to the author of the study, professor of dermatology, Jonathan Rhys, despite the fact that the skin we have is everywhere the same, as well as its its phototype, each of its area exposed to sunlight should be considered separately.
Moreover, the buttocks - is not the only place that tans slowly. It has long been observed that the upper part of the back becomes dark faster feet and hands are always darker outside than inside. It also appeared that the holders of freckles harder to chocolate skin tone, than those who do not.
The results can be useful for understanding the localization of skin cancers. They usually occur on the ears, face, back of hands and on top (in balding men). With regard to melanoma, less common but most deadly cancer, then women, it often happens in the calves, and men - on their shoulders. Dr. Rice suggests that this occurs due to uneven thickness of the skin.
The conclusion reached by the researchers - the time in the sun should be spent taking into account the uneven distribution of sunburn by applying additional protection for the most vulnerable parts of the body, reported in the journal "Experimental Dermatology".
Sep 2, 2010
Healthy Mind - Welfare Guarantee
Scientists have found that mental illness at a young age adversely affect the socio-economic situation in the future.
In modern society, mental disorders in young people has become increasingly common. Of course, they affect the ability of boys and girls to learn and adapt in society. This, in turn, hinders the further development of the individual.
Employees of the University of Otago (Christchurch, New Zealand) decided to find out how are interconnected mental illness at a young age and quality of life of adults. For this purpose, they examined 950 volunteers who participated in a major national study of health and population development (Christchurch Health and Development Study).
All participants underwent twice psychological examination: in the age of 21 and 25. Scientists were interested in symptoms of depression, obsessions, anxiety, panic attacks, various phobias (fears). They also questioned the participants about the use of and dependence on alcohol and drugs, possible episodes of antisocial behavior. Then the volunteers were again interviewed at the age of 30 years. At this time, researchers have focused on the quality of life, level of education and career accomplishments. Researchers took into account also the image of family life in general, parents education, as well as childhood physical and sexual violence.
It was found that almost half of the respondents aged between 18 and 25 years were identified at least one symptom indicating the presence of mental disorders. In 2 / 3 of volunteers were found even several such symptoms.
It was found that mental illness significantly affected the well-being in adulthood. Those study participants who were exposed to them in their teens, are much more likely to 30 years did not have a permanent job, earn enough amount of money or receive social welfare benefits and unemployment benefits. And the more episodes of psychological abnormality was noted at a young age, the worse was social and economic situation.
- Our results emphasize the need for the earliest possible detection of psychological problems among young people, - says head of research, psychologist Sherry Gibb. - During initiation of treatment will help protect these people from the negative impact of mental illness and improve their quality of life.
Sep 1, 2010
Muscles have a strong "memory"
Scientists have found that breaks in sports trainings effect muscles not as strong as it was previously thought.
Researchers from the University of Oslo (Norway) proved the importance of physical fitness in young years - then it will be much easier to return at maturity or old age.
Muscles 'memory' is stored in muscle cell containing DNA. The author of the study physiologist Christian Gundersen claims that muscle cells have a rather large size. And in order to maintain the matrix of DNA, creating a lot of proteins necessary for muscle strength, are needed not one but several cores.
Previous studies have shown that exercise increases the muscle cells, causing them to merge with the stem cells, located between the cells of muscle fibers. However, previously it was thought that in case of muscle atrophy additional cores die as a result of the process called "apoptosis". (Apoptosis - genetically programmed cell death.)
Gundersen conducted a study on mice that were forced to do exercises to lift fingerprints. At the 6 th day they had seen an increase in the number of cores. After 21 days of training nuclei become longer by 54%. From 9-day muscle cells began to increase in size. This proves that the process begins with the nuclei, and lean mass then increases.
In another series of experiments, mice first two weeks 'pumped muscles', and then researchers have caused them atrophy. The size of cells decreased by 40%, but the number of nuclei remained unchanged.
When experts examined the weakened muscles, they found that although the process of apoptosis goes on, other cells die, but not muscle fibers or additional cores. Their term of life was three months - is enough, considering that a mouse lives in an average of two years. Maybe people nucleus of muscle cells also help to accelerate the production of the desired proteins, due to memory reserves.
The results of the study may make sports agency review periods during which the athletes implicated in the use of steroid drugs can be excluded from the competitions. Since testosterone increases the number of cell nucleus more than sports training, the advantage gained once may be 'eternal', assumes Gundersen.
Aug 27, 2010
A Thin Waist Ensures A Long Life
It is proved that the middle-aged and older people live less if they have extra inches on the waist, even with normal weight.
The most dangerous situation for human health develops when fat accumulates in the abdomen. This greatly increases the risk of premature death, as well as cardiovascular, respiratory and cancer diseases. It has already been noted that people whose waist circumference exceeds the norm, regardless of body mass index (BMI) were more likely suffer from diabetes and have violations in the work of the heart.
A recent study of this problem revealed even greater danger. Epidemiologist American Cancer Community in Atlanta, USA, Eric Jakobs and his colleagues analyzed data from nearly 48,500 men and 56.000 women aged over 50 years. In 1992-1993 they filled out questionnaires with questions on previous diseases, and in 1997 they measured the weight and waist circumference. Observations lasted 14 years. By the time more than 9.000 and 5.000 participants study leaved this world. As it turned out, the relationship between the parameters of the body and the death rate actually exists. The life expectancy of men with waist circumference of 120 cm and women with the same measure of 106 cm was almost 2 times shorter than their slimmer peers.
The authors clarify that the presence of normal, overweight or obese did not play a significant role here - the whole thing was just a waist size. Oddly enough, the ladies with normal body weight, but with excessive roundness in the belly, were the group most at risk of premature death.
Reflecting on the causes of this phenomenon, experts have suggested that disease and death cited the excess fat around the abdominal organs, as evidenced by the deposition of fat from the outside.
As for women, with the onset of menopause and decrease the production of female sex hormone estrogen, they tend to gain weight around the waist, so in this age of health risk inevitably increases.
The study which is published in the journal "Archives of Internal Medicine» in August underscores the need to monitor the harmony of its shape, regardless of weight and age.
Aug 27, 2010
Smog affects the heart
American experts warn that the smoke and fumes from forest fires can adversely affect not only lungs, but also on the heart.
The experiment was conducted with the participation of firefighters - people who are on duty dealing with fire and smoke. Directly in the process of team scientists measured levels of respirable micro-particles and evaluated the potential harm to the body. At the time of the fire-fighting and in the subsequent phase, when the fire fighters are trying to prevent re-ignition, there was a high concentration of harmful substances. These particles are very small - no more than one ten thousandth of a millimeter, and up to 70% of all fire substances exhaled.
According to the study author Stuart Baxter of the University of Cincinnati, USA, inhalation of this "toxic mixture", even penetrating into the airways and settle in the lungs, may cause damage not only the respiratory system, but also the heart.
The main danger is when fire is took under control, and there is need to make sure that it will not get flared up again. That's when they usually take off protective gear and begin to inhale harmful micro-particles the concentration of which is even higher than during combustion.
Experts note the high mortality statistics from heart attacks among representatives of this profession - up to half of all cases in the workplace.
By publishing the results of scientific work in the August issue of the "Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine", they warn of the need for more long wearing protective respirators and screening among firefighters to identify victims of exposure to dangerous particles.
Aug 25, 2010
Psychological stress threatens intellect
Stress experienced by a woman in the middle years of her life increases the risk of developing dementia in old age.
Swedish researchers from 1968 to 2003 observed 1,415 women, who by the beginning of the study were from 38 to 60 years. The researchers evaluated the three degrees of psychological stress experienced by the participants of the experiment. For 35 years, until surveyed was held, 161 women were diagnosed with dementia. Most of the ladies (105) were affected by Alzheimer's disease, 40 - had vascular dementia caused by vascular lesions, and 16 - developed other forms of dementia.
After analyzing the data obtained, the researchers found that women who experience stress frequently or permanently, the risk of developing dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease is doubled compared to those who had quiet life.
- This is the first study that showed that the stress in middle age may lead to dementia in old age. It confirms the results of similar studies of animals, - emphasizes Lena Johansson from University of Gothenburg.
Talking about her work at 8th issue of the journal "Brain", the researchers write that their work helps to better understand the risk factors for dementia, but more research is needed to confirm these results and examine the neurobiology mechanisms for the link between psychological stress and dementia.
Aug 24, 2010
Vitamin B6 Combats Cholesterol
Scientists have proven that folic acid is able to maintain normal blood lipids.
It is believed that high levels of the amino acid homocysteine in the blood increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, as this compound is involved in the formation of harmful low-density lipids and atherosclerosis plaques. But folic acid (vitamin B6) can reduce the concentration of homocysteine and possibly a protective factor for blood vessels and heart.
This relationship decided to test the research staff at the University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland). For their study from a database of hospital laboratories they took information about the concentration of folic acid and fat in the blood of nearly 1,750 patients.
Lipid Profile - is a set of specific blood tests, allowing to determine diviations in fat metabolism of the organism, which is of great importance for the diagnosis of atherosclerosis.
Data analysis showed that the higher blood levels of folic acid was, the less it contained "bad" cholesterol associated with low-density lipids. But the level of protective high-density lipids, which are struggling with atherosclerosis, by contrast, was increased.
Revealed relationship, which scientists named physiologically conditioned, does not depend on age and sex. However, researchers were unable to take into account food preferences and lifestyle characteristics of patients, as the information in the database of laboratory data is not provided. Therefore, they are advised to conduct further surveys on this issue, because the blood lipid profile and the content of folic acid can influence nutrition and healthy lifestyles.
However, scientists generally believe that the information obtained is very important and useful. If it will be clearly demonstrated that folic acid affects the fat concentration, then the arsenal of modern medicine will be 'enriched' with another method of combating atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases.
Aug 23, 2010
Diabetes makes the bones brittle
American scientists have found that women with diabetes are at increased risk of fractures and osteoporosis.
Researchers believe that this may be due to the earlier development of menopause and loss of bone mineral density in case of the disease.
Researchers from Wright State University, located in the city Kettering (Ohio, USA) conducted a study among nearly 2200 women. Researchers assessed in women bone mineral density and fractures.
At the beginning of diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in 5% of women. Moreover, the age of menopause, they corresponded to 49 years, whereas in healthy menopausal women advancing an average of 52 years.
Over a three-year period of observation, scientists have revealed that the mineral density of the femoral neck in women with diabetes, decreased four times more than in healthy participants of research. But the bones of the spine in women with diabetes, strangely enough, lost minerals and micro-elements slowly.
In addition, after accounting for age, weight and smoking, found that diabetes almost doubles the risk of fractures of large bones.
- Currently, worldwide there a real epidemic of diabetes. The results of our study indicate that it can be combined with a high frequency of fractures, particularly among women who had menopause - the head of the work, Dr. Naila Khalil.
Aug 20, 2010
Hair Loss treatments
There are many types of prescribed treatments for hair loss ( Propecia ). Depending on the cause of your hair loss, treatment methods will be decided upon. Medications can be in topical, injectable or oral forms. If you have inherited hair loss or loss due to age or hormonal changes Rogaine (minoxidil) is a treatment that can work for both men and women. The most popular drug - Propecia (Finasteride) is a men only treatment. Women should not come in contact with Propecia whether or not it is whole or crushed. If it is possible that you are pregnant or may be pregnant, do not come in contact with this drug as it might cause defects in a male baby's sexual organs. Some men experienced sexual side effects including decreased desire and decreased amount of semen.
Propecia is one of the biggest names in hair loss pills. It goes by many other names such as Finasteride and Proscar are the most common. It was originally marketed under Proscar and sold as a drug for BPH, which is enlarged prostate. But then they noticed that it was helping block the DHT causing male pattern baldness, so it became marketed under Propecia for hair loss. The down side to this medication is that it is only intended for use my men. It can cause serious birth defects and can transfer through the skin, which is why women, especially ones that may be pregnant, should not handle it. There are other things men have to consider before taking this medication as well, such as prostate cancer or liver disease.
Naturally, the human hair is made up of protein called keratin and the standard and hair growth cycle greatly depends on the form and functions of the hair fiber. It is believed that hair fibers are the only parts of the body that can be totally renewed without scarring.
There are many causes of thinning hair or baldness and one of the most prevalent is caused by genetic. This is predominant in males, though women are also targeted by this. The hair follicles of males are genetically sensitive to the effects of the hormone dihydrotestosterone or DHT. DHT is a derivative or by-product of the hormone testosterone which converts into a much stronger and potent hormone dihydrotestosterone with the aid of the 5-alpha reduction enzyme. DHT is a proven damaging chemical to the hair follicles, which makes them weaker and weaker then they eventually die, making all the hair to fall out from the scalp that leads to baldness.
Other causes of thinning hair or baldness include malnutrition, hormonal disorders (in women), crash diet, strong medications, illnesses and scalp infections.
Aug 19, 2010
Cialis and sexual stimulation
Under sexual stimulation, body produces nitric oxide which is needed to widen the blood vessels inside penis.
Viagra, Levitra, and Cialis increase the production of nitric oxide thereby aiding the process of achieving and maintaining the maximum erection. There is only a slight dissimilarity in the chemical constitution of the three medicines and this affects their results with each individual. Doctor's consider their side effects and reaction with other medicines before prescribing them for a particular patient. These medicines should be taken 30 to 60 minutes before sexual intercourse on empty stomach and not more than once a day. Effect of Viagra and Levitra lasts up to 4 hours while Cialis is effective till 36 hours from intake.
Cialis (Tadalafil) is a path-breaking oral impotence treatment medicine that has offered unfound sexual freedom to men with erectile dysfunction. Unlike Viagra and Levitra that limits the sexual independence to about 4 hours, Cialis allows men the liberty to have sex anytime and every time in the 36 hours period that the pill remains effective. Further, unlike Viagra and Levitra that stops men from eating food while taking the medicine, Cialis offers men with ED the liberty to wine and dine with their partner and enjoy lovemaking when they please.
Generic Cialis or Tadalafil is available in three categories, namely 10 tablets of 20mg, 50 tablets of 20mg and 90 tablets of 20mg. It is manufactured by Cipla or German Remedies and carries an expiry date of one year. Tadalafil is usually taken just before the beginning of the sexual activity. You must have sexual simulation to get an erection, otherwise the erection is not possible.
Aug 18, 2010
Erectile dysfunction and nervous system
Erectile Dysfunction among young men is not new. There are many cases of young men in their early twenties who suffer from erectile dysfunction. In fact, there are many men in their early twenties who suffer with this problem and erectile dysfunction is one of the main reasons behind their low self esteem.
What are the causes for erectile dysfunction among young men:
There are two causes for erectile dysfunction among young men namely-psychological cause and lifestyle related cause. At present, many young men undergo stress and depression, which can be due to pressure at work place or that caused by relationship issues. The second cause of erectile dysfunction among young men is excessive smoking, taking excess of alcohol, and drug abuse. These can take a toll on their health and thereby result in poor erection and other sexual issues.
ED affects men of all ages. It implies impaired flow of blood to the penis. It is usually as a result of disease, injury, side effects or physical causes. Occurrences of erectile dysfunction go up as a man ages although this does not mean that it cannot be avoided.
Stress, hypertension and diabetes could trigger erectile dysfunction and impotence. Fatigue, drug or alcohol abuse could contribute to it also. Being nervous about intercourse, feeling sexually inadequate or having trouble with a sexual partner could lead to erectile dysfunction too.
Impotence makes a man feel like he has failed and he loses self-esteem. There is good news because impotence could be healed naturally in the majority of sufferers. Before you seek external help, it is a good idea to look for a natural cure.
Change of lifestyle is vital because the way you live can have side effects that could trigger erectile dysfunction. This may mean you stop smoking, lose extra weight or reduce your intake of alcohol. This makes your health to improve in general and your sexual life too.
Doing exercises regularly like running and walking improves blood flow to all body sections the penis included. Blood flow is also increased by breathing exercises. Exercising the pelvic muscles using simple exercises for a few minutes daily could also help. These exercises require you to tighten muscles usually used in stopping gas from escaping from your bowels.
Aug 17, 2010
Although it is not regularly discussed, male menopause is a real medical condition experienced by men from their 40s to 60s. Men, just like women, suffer the effects of lowering levels of hormone production in the human body. These symptoms include depression, thinning hair, diminishing sexual ability, irritability, and feelings of doubt. While these symptoms may seem overwhelming, there are several treatments that can help alleviate these symptoms.
For years, many have dismissed the changes that middle-aged men experience both mentally and physically and simply attributed them to mid-life crises. However, we now know these changes are more than just circumstance or because of other extraneous factors, but instead, are largely due to an inevitable decline in male hormones, resulting in andropause, the male equivalent of menopause.
Treatment for andropause may involve the use of hormone replacement therapy, known as HRT, for men who are experiencing more severe symptoms of the condition. HRT may be useful for improving mood, relieving depression, increasing energy, and reducing anger or irritability. Many men who have received hormone replacement therapy including testosterone also report an increase in their libido as well as a decrease in insomnia or sleep problems.
For most men, a holistic or natural approach such as lifestyle changes, including diet and exercise, are usually all that is necessary to control symptoms of andropause. Experts recommend a diet rich with fiber, vitamins and minerals, particularly C, D, E and zinc, which can be found naturally in foods such as leafy green vegetables, or through supplements.
Aug 16, 2010
Weight loss and diabetes
A new diet regime and an increased amount of exercise can make a massive difference to those in the stages of early diabetes or in fact those who have developed the condition. Reducing the pressure on the body and reducing your weight has been shown to reduce insulin resistance which means that the body will naturally regulate the level of sugar in your blood.
It is estimated that 90% of all type II diabetes sufferers are overweight, which is a perfect indication of the link between obesity and diabetes. So the need to tackle your weight if you are obese is vital.
Diabetes weight loss management begins with a visit to your doctor. Initial, find out his opinion on your diabetes, what kind you've got then arm yourself with as much information as possible about the diabetes you are diagnosed with. You can then look at diabetic weight loss, food for diabetic treatment and how to vary your life so as you can live a normal and productive, and hopefully long life.
If you have diabetes you may well need to lose weight or be careful not to put any on which can exacerbate your condition. If you follow a diabetic weight loss diet you'll easily and painlessly be able to control your weight and your blood glucose levels.
The pyramid has the foods at the bottom that you can eat the most of such as whole grains and other starchy carbohydrates, then there are fruit and vegetables of which you should eat 2 - 4 and 3 - 5 servings every day. Above that is 2 to 3 helpings of milk along with 4 to 6 ounces of meat, eggs, fish or other protein. At the top are sugary food, fatty food and alcoholic drinks, all of which should be severely limited. Your doctor will provide you with a copy of the pyramid and let you know which portions will help you to lose or maintain weight.
Following a diabetic weight loss diet isn't the end of your commitment to yourself and your health though. A sensible exercise regime will help you too. A brisk walk every day for about 20 minutes will not only help to control your weight, it will keep your heart and lungs healthy which in turn will keep your circulation working.
Aug 13, 2010
Stomach cancer is caused by bacteria
British scientists have found that N.pilory (Helicobacter) may cause cancer due to activation of several genes responsible for the synthesis of important enzymes.
These bacteria, which can live in the acidic environment of the stomach, is an important risk factor for cancer - adenocarcinoma. This type of cancer is associated with a violation of the normal structure of cells of the gastric epithelium and their replacement by others, improper to stomach cells. Scientists have established that Helicobacter increase production of three types of substances, each of which contribute to the development of gastric cancer.
Researchers from University of Nottingham (UK) created an experimental model of early stages of adenocarcinoma. To do this, they raised three types of epithelial cells of the stomach, part of which was infected with helicobacter. Then, using immunological methods, researchers assessed the activity of various genes in these cells. It was found that gastric bacteria enhance the work of three genes that are responsible for producing important proteins: matrix metalloproteinase (MM), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and the hormone gastric. EGF is required for regeneration of cells, which inevitably occurs in malignant tumors. MM provides the normal biological activity of growth factor. A gastric, which normally increases the secretion of gastric juices and digestive enzymes is an important regulator of the two other proteins.
Interestingly, in the laboratory mice with gastric cancer suppression of gastrin resulted in reduced formation of metalloproteinases, epidermal growth factor and less intensive replacement of normal cells of the stomach.
Thus, we have established that Helicobacter enhance the activity of genes responsible for the formation of MM and EGF. This process contributes to the development of gastric cancer, possibly involving hormone gastric, - explains study leader Dr. Susan Watson. - Three of these substances in the future could become a target for therapeutic effects in patients with gastric cancer on the background of Helicobacter infection.
Aug 12, 2010
Food allergy in childhood
Finnish scientists have shown that early development of allergy to cow's milk in young children determines risk of asthma in the future.
Allergy to cow's milk protein - is the most common form of food intolerance in infants and preschool children. Its frequency varies from 2 to 3%. We know that children's allergies are one of the most important factors in the development of asthma in older age.
Researchers at the Central Hospital of the University of Helsinki (Finland) have decided to further explore this issue. To do this, almost 9 years they watched 94 children with allergy to cow's milk and in 80 healthy babies. The study began when the kids were less than a year. Researchers determined the quantity of immunoglobulin E in the blood and found that in some children it was raised. Namely this protein is a critical indicator of allergic reactions. In addition, testers had auditioned for the expansion of the bronchi to histamine and evaluate the content of nitric oxide in exhaled air (this substance is a biological marker of inflammation in the airways).
The survey showed that children with allergies to the background of high levels of immunoglobulin E has also been increased and the concentration of nitric oxide in exhaled air, and the reaction to the test with histamine was strongly positive. All these data show the increased sensitivity of the respiratory tract and the tendency to bronchospasm. In the first year of life in these infants was often observed episodes of breathlessness as a precursor of asthma. Scientists also found that the state of the bronchi adversely affected not only allergies, but parents smoking.
- We found out that children with allergies to cow's milk protein, which occurs at an early age, in the school often arise signs of inflammation in the airways and increased reactivity of the bronchi - said study leader Dr Pekka Malmberg. - This is consistent with earlier work carried out which revealed the relationship between bronchial asthma and other allergic and intolerance to cow's milk.
Aug 11, 2010
Less Meat - Less Fat
European scientists believe that the decrease in the proportion of meat in the diet promotes weight loss.
The basis for this view was the scientific work carried out by a group of European scientists in the study of cancer communication with physical activity, nutrition, alcohol, smoking, eating outside the home and obesity (EPIC-PANACEA).
During 5 years scientists have observed more than 370 000 people from 10 European countries aging from 25 to 70 years. Lifestyle, including food habits of survey participants were revealed with the help of a questionnaire. At the beginning of the study were measured height and weight. Five years later, participants reported changes in body weight occurred.
Analyzing this information, the researchers found that eating meat was associated with weight gain by gender. This dependence persisted even when adjusting for other factors that influence body weight, for example, total calories, physical activity. Increase servings of meat, 250 grams per day (about a steak with a stored energy of 450 kcal) led to an increase in body weight by an average of 2 kg over the five years of research. Especially obvious this association was present among fans of lamb, beef, poultry and prepared meat products.
Based on these results, researchers suggest that less consumption of meat may contribute to normalization of body weight. As the researchers wrote in the August issue of "The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition", the influence of meat diet on body weight may be associated with high-calorie foods and high fat content.
Aug 10, 2010
Nanoparticles Are Able To Burn The Tumors
Doctors are testing a new way to kill cancer tumors - now the laser has appeared in their arsenal.
To hit with a "laser strike" will be using the iron multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MUNTHE). Under laboratory conditions, this technology is well proved. With the use of scanners, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), scientists were able to observe how nanoparticles find tumor in the present living tissue and "shoot" it with laser to the smallest particles. As a result, the tumor completely disappears.
This development is based on the principles of laser-induced thermal therapy (LITT). It is based on the application of heat and energy to destroy cancer. The main drawback of LITT is the inability to see the tiny particles of the tumor on the scanner. But the developers of the Medical Center, "Baptist" at the Wake Forest University in the United States brought this therapy to perfection, thanks to nanotubes that absorb the laser energy and convert it into heat. Being inside the tumor, they literally "burn" cancer cells. And now all the elements of the tumor can simultaneously see and be exposed to thermal radiation.
The task of paramount importance - defining the location of nanoparticles in the human body - is solved, according to one of the authors of the method of Master of Science Syuanfen Dean (Xuanfeng Ding, MS).
Previous studies on patients with cancer of mice have shown that LITT increases the duration of their lives. The next series of experiments will be conducted with participation of iron nanoparticles. If they succeed, cancer patients have a chance to live longer and even cure disease.
Aug 9, 2010
How to protect yourself from sun
American experts have studied the mechanism of action of a special enzyme that can be used in the creation of remedies for the prevention of dangerous diseases of the skin.
The enzyme photolyase is present in all plants, bacteria, insects and most animals. The only the nature cheated are mammals, headed by the man. If we had photolyase, we have never known what it means to burn in the sun, or, even worse, cancer of the skin. The fact is that this enzyme performs an important task - it restores the damages done to the DNA of the organism by ultraviolet rays. But scientists do not surrender, and they were able to trace how protection mechanism works.
Under laboratory conditions, a specialist in physics and chemistry from the University of Ohio Dongping Zhong, together with his colleagues traced the photolyase using a single electron and proton introduced into the damaged DNA strand, rapidly restored its normal state. Researchers believe that the photolyase captures the light of other wavelengths - that is visible in the form of photons. Using ultrafast pulses of light could make a series of snapshots of this process at the atomic level.
Although this sounds simple, in reality there are complex chemical reactions. The authors explain the work that skin damage by ultraviolet rays is the chemical shift of the borders of the DNA molecules in cells. A useful enzyme breaks irregular borders and makes the atoms of DNA back into place. The electron and proton are automatically ejected by helix of DNA back to the photolyase, presumably to repeat the treatment at other spots.
In humans, there are some similar substances, but they are much weaker. Therefore, when the DNA is not reversed, the skin cells die, and a chronic burning in the sun can lead to gene mutations with such unpleasant consequences such as cancers.
Now, on the basis of photolyase doctors will be able to develop effective drugs or protective aids for the skin.
Aug 6, 2010
Magnetic technology create new medicines
French scientists have proposed for the development of new drugs using the method of nuclear magnetic resonance, previously used only for diagnostics.
When developing new drugs special attention is paid to the phenomenon called bioavailability, ie the degree of assimilation of the drug by the body. It depends on many factors: shape of the molecule, the composition of the molecule. For the most effective drugs sometimes it is necessary to test hundreds of combinations. And if the so-called hard ligands (ie those where the drug and ligand tightly fastened), there are rules for determining, for flexible though in which there is some degree of freedom, there are no such rules.
The term ligand indicates molecules or ions that bind receptors and other molecules with a certain degree of specificity, called affinity (eg, oxygen is a ligand for hemoglobin). As a ligand can be a medication or cytokine, specifically binding to molecular target.
And now to solve this problem scientists at the University of Notre Dame (France) suggested to use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). According to the head of research professor of biochemistry Jeffrey Pena, now it is possible to construct molecule atom by atom, and to determine which parts of it should be fixed rigidly, and may have some degree of freedom to better interact with the target protein.
The experimenters are confident that with this method it is possible to determine the degree of flexibility that should have a molecule for better interaction with the target molecule. Or do we determine the level of flexibility that will help overcome the drug molecule cell membrane and reach the target protein.
- We are in the beginning of systematic work on the problem of how architectural changes of the molecules can change their pharmacological properties. This method will help to develop drugs are not against a specific disease, but also diseases such as cancer and AIDS - commented professor Jeffrey Pen.
Aug 5, 2010
The mystery of the death of Pharaoh Tutankha
German scientists have found that the pharaoh Tutankhamun was not killed by malaria but died from sickle-cell anemia.
There are many versions on the death of the young governor of Egypt - he died in 1324 BC, when he was 19 years old. Of all the assumptions - from the fall from his horse till his poisoning - the most reliable was considered opinion that he died from malaria.
This is due to the fact that his remains which were discovered in a mummy in 1922, recently found a gene of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malaria. The author of the study, published earlier this year in the "Journal of the American Medical Association" (JAMA), was an outstanding Egyptian archaeologist Zahi Hawass which held with the mummy left foot a series of tests, X-ray studies and genetic analysis.
But recent research by German scholars argue for a slightly different version. Timman, Christian and Christian Meyer from the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Bernhard Nought in Hamburg, believe that the young governor of Egypt was suffering from a hereditary blood disease, greatly undermined his health, even before an attack of malaria had stripped him of last vitality.
Patients with sickle cell anemia have hemoglobin gene mutation, this is why the red blood cells harden, taking the form of a sickle. A copy of this gene confers immunity to human malaria. It is common in regions where the disease is endemic - including the territory of ancient Egypt. If one body found 2 copies of sickle-cell gene, a person suffers from severe anemia, and rarely lives till mature age.
According to the authors, such damage to bones, like those of Tutankhamen, are often present namely when a person is sick with sickle-cell anemia. This disease prevents the flow of oxygen in the bone tissue, due to the fact that the deformed red blood cells block the capillaries. It is assumed that the father and the mother of the pharaoh were close relatives, so the chances are that they gave their son 2 copies of the unlucky gene.
Currently, the exclusive right to work with the Egyptian mummy has a team of scientists from Egypt. Perhaps DNA testing in cooperation with German experts could shed some truth on the mystery of the death of the Egyptian king.
Aug 4, 2010
Cherries can help with insomnia
Research has shown that cherry juice has a slight soporific effect.
Sleep is needed by all living beings. Its violation leads to depression, increased irritability, memory disorders. At the same statistics shows every fifth person has any sleep disorders. Three staff members from University of Rochester (USA) drew attention to the fact that the oral testimonies of some people, cherry juice helps them to cope with the insomnia. In order to verify this information, scientists have studied the effect of the drink on the quality of sleep of fifteen elderly people suffering from insomnia.
During the first two weeks of the study participants drank a glass of cherry juice in the morning and evening. Then there was a break for two weeks to see if the cherry juice actually contains some substances that help with insomnia, they had time to wash out of the body. Then began the second phase of the study, also lasted two weeks. During this phase of the study participants drank again in the morning and evening for a glass of juice, but from other fruits. Analysis of experimental results showed that when participants were drinking cherry juice, they felt asleep on average of 17 minutes faster.
Researchers believe that the beneficial effect of cherry juice is due to the fact that cherries contain high amounts of melatonin - a substance which is produced by one of the brain parts responsible for regulating the sleep cycle. In addition, melatonin is also a very effective antioxidant.
- Regular consumption of cherries in the form of juice or fresh fruit can help maintain healthy biorhythms of the body, - said Dr. Russell Reiter of the University of Texas. - It's better than taking medication melatonin. In addition, cherry - is the source of many other nutrients.
Aug 3, 2010
Diabetes diagnosing became easier
Scientists have developed a new method for diagnosing early stages of diabetes and prediabetes.
Prediabetes - is a metabolic disorder in which a person develops a reduced sensitivity to insulin, resulting in increased blood glucose. As the name implies, prediabetes often precedes diabetes, but if it was detected at early stages, the change in lifestyle can help a person to return glucose levels to normal and avoid more serious health problems.
Studies carried out by specialists of the Medical Faculty at Johns Hopkins University (Maryland, USA), give physicians an excellent tool for diagnosing early stages of prediabetes. U.S. study says, the level of the enzyme ogliknekaza in patients with diabetes and prediabtes is two - three times higher than in healthy people. The first who discovered this phenomenon was postgraduate laboratory of biochemistry Pak Kensuke, who studied the increase in protein O-GlcNAc (that reads "ogliknek") on the surface of red blood cells in people with diabetes. According to the researcher, when she finished testing, she did not believe her eyes: the level of the enzyme ogliknekaze is under strict control of the organism, and no one expected that he would be so elevated. Five repeated tests were conducted by Miss Park to make sure that the results are not an error.
As suggested by its scientific director, Dr. Gerald Hart, increasing the amount of this enzyme the body tries to cope with the negative effects of raising blood sugar. The fact that increased levels of glucose leads to an increase in protein O-GlcNAc on the surface of red blood cells, and it violates many of the vital functions of these cells. Ogliknekaza cleaves this protein, so the body and increases sharply as its concentration. In practical terms, this means a small probability of error when determining the level of this enzyme.
- To maintain the health of patients is very important to identify prediabetes in the early stages of its development, - says Dr. Hart. - We expect that our development will give physicians a simple and reliable method for diagnosing the disease.
Aug 2, 2010
Sea water accumulates pollutants
Composition of ocean water contributes to the preservation and accumulation of mercury in the body of its inhabitants, so the chemical impurities in freshwater fish is not so dangerous as in the sea fish.
Scientists are now worried about a substance that can cause irremediable damage to our body. This compound is called methylmercury. It is a powerful neurotoxin that depletes the kidneys and brain and can even lead to death. However, nature provides a mechanism for its neutralization - under the influence of sunlight.
In the body mercury compounds penetrate into the various organs and tissues, but most of them are found in the blood, liver, kidneys and brain. In the blood is observed erythropenia, in the liver and kidneys occur degenerative changes. In the gastrointestinal tract take place strong inflammatory processes.
Researchers from Duke University have decided to learn more about that substance. Due to the experimental data they found out that in river water methylmercury easily joins the organic products of decomposition, such as algae or animal remains, and under the influence of the sun is easily converted to less toxic forms. But in the sea poison "hangs" for a molecule of salt (chloride) and is virtually impossible to collapse. In this form it easily penetrates into the body of the marine fauna, and thus is more likely to get on the table to the man.
Mercury compounds discharged into the water tend to accumulate in fish, the number of substances are usually proportional to its age and size. Methylmercury in fish constitues 50 to 90% of total mercury, and culinary cooking reduces the levels of mercury in fish only by 20%. The mercury quantity increases with age (size) of fish and increases by the food chain. Maximum concentrations of metals found in older predators - sharks, tuna, jack-pikes, cat-fish.
According to Associate Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering Hailin Hsu-Kim, scientists and policymakers should focus more efforts on prevention of mercury emissions in the world's oceans than in rivers.
Jul 30, 2010
Smoking - is a habit, and not a dependence
According to Israeli medics, smoking does not cause physical addiction, and the reasons for which people can not quit smoking are psychological.
Nicotine gum and patches are widespread, but often, alas, this is an inefficient way to quit smoking and many smokers have seen this on their own experience. The results of two studies conducted recently by members of Tel Aviv University can help to develop more effective ways to combat this habit.
In the first study, scientists have identified patterns in smoking habits of flight attendants and stewards of the Israeli airlines El-Al. All participants were examined during 2 flights - a long flight from Tel Aviv to New York (10-13 hours) and the flight from Israel to Europe and back, in which both parts of the flight lasted for three to five hours. The participants had to assess in the flight how strongly they currently want to smoke.
In the case of physical dependence to be expected that the longer the flight, the greater the desire to smoke. However, the craving for smoking throughout the flight remained the same for long and short flights and getting stronger just before landing. According to researchers, this suggests a purely psychological anticipation of opportunities to smoke, which is magnified when a person knows that soon it will be possible to fulfill one's wish.
These findings are confirmed by data in the second study. It was attended by Orthodox Jews whose religious beliefs prohibit smoking in the Shabbat. They were questioning the strength of desire to smoke on a weekday, Saturday and, finally, on a weekday, in which researchers asked them to refrain from smoking. It was found out that all subjects craving to smoke on Saturday was very low, amplified only in the evening. On weekdays when they were asked not to smoke, the urge to smoke was strong all day.
This indicates that the strength of desire to smoke is not with the level of nicotine in the body, buy the psychological mood of man, and explains the usual operations that accompany smoking as a ritual.
- The development of methods to combat tobacco use should pay more attention to behavioral aspects of this habit, - said Dr. Royven Dar, who led the research. - These methods allow to deal with it faster than the purely medical.
Jul 29, 2010
The new "weapon" against bacteria
Methods of genetic engineering will help to create an antibiotic that kills bacteria that are resistant to all other means.
Pathogenic bacteria are constantly having an "arms race" with the doctors. Bacteria can rapidly mutate, rapidly acquiring resistance to all new and new antibiotics. That is why doctors advise to treat until the end when you started taking antibiotics. Otherwise, remnants of microbial that survived after the treatment, will give rise to a new strains that are resistant to the antibiotic that you took. Unfortunately, the number of such mutant strains is constantly growing, and many antibiotics that were effective couple of decades ago, no longer have any impact on today's organisms.
Pathogen - any organism (including viruses, bacteria, and so on.), capable of causing illness to another living being.
Recently, an increased interest of microbiologists attracts promising antibiotic microbisporicyn allocated by soil bacteria of the genus microbispora (Microbispora corallina). This antibiotic effectively fights even with such pathogens as Staphylococcus aureus, notoriously resistant to antibiotics and responsible for a huge number of postoperative infections. It helps to cope with many other pathogens that are resistant to even the most powerful antibiotics.
Unfortunately, microbispora is difficult to grow in artificial conditions, making it difficult to obtain microbisporicyn. A graduate student from the International Centre for the Study of the physiology of plants and microorganisms Lucy Foulston tried to solve this problem. Using modern techniques of genetic engineering she found some areas of the genome microbispory responsible for the synthesis of the antibiotic, how it is possible to affect on its generation and what genes are responsible for its beneficial effects. Through these studies, scientists are now able to modify microbispora in such a way to increase output of mikcobisporicyn and possibly improve its properties.
- This study will help to put into practice the use of this remarkable antibiotic and its improved form, which can be created using the technique developed by us - say Lucy Foulston and her supervisor, Professor Mervyn Bibb.
Jul 28, 2010
Papillomavirus can cause skin cancer
American scientists have found that when squamous cell carcinoma of the skin often occurs in patients infected with beta-human papillomavirus.
The data obtained confirm the relationship between these viruses and cancer of the skin, which can develop on a background of lower immunity during viral infection.
For a more detailed study of this problem researchers from Dartmouth Medical School (New Hampshire, USA) examined about 660 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, nearly 900 people with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and slightly more than 800 healthy volunteers. Scientists were interested if participants had beta-papillomavirus (BPV) and their relationship to the development of cancer. The specialists examined the serum of all participants for antibodies to various BPV.
Human papillomavirus (HPV)- DNA-containing virus of the genus papillomavirus. Transmitted only from person to person it leads to a change in the growth of tissues. Are known more than 100 types of HPV. Of these, about 40 are sexually transmitted and can cause diseases of the genital organs and the anus in men and women (the appearance of genital warts). Some types of HPV are harmless, while others cause genital warts, and some involved in cancer development.
It was found out that the possibility of MBM was higher, the more different types of papilloma virus present in the body. For example, patients in whose blood antibodies were found more than 9 types of BPV, the risk of malignant skin tumors was higher in almost 1,7 times. At the same time between the BPC and the presence of viruses in the body of this interrelationship was not.
Interestingly, the relationship between PRK and papilloma viruses was much stronger in those patients who have long been treated systemic glucocorticoid hormones. Perhaps this is due to immunodeficiency, arise when taking these medicines.
Lead researcher Professor Margaret Karagas believes that researchers managed to obtain conclusive proof of the role of BPV in the development of skin cancer. However, she stressed that the risk of PRK is higher, the more types of viruses present in the body.
Jul 27, 2010
Artificial Blood Created
Artificial blood can be stored for much longer than usual and is suitable for transfusion to people with any blood group.
A Company from Ohio commissioned by the U.S. armed forces developed a methodology to obtain blood for transfusion, which should solve the problem of donor's lack and blood delivery to the remote and inaccessible regions of the planet.
The U.S. military forces were preoccupied by this problem because blood should be used within a week or two after it was donated. This time it's not enough to bring blood to the places of hostilities, especially if there are many wounded and the blood is needed in large quantities.
Functionally, the artificial blood is fully consistent with human blood since it is produced from natural blood-forming stem cells. The source of hematopoietic cells are cells from umbilical cord remaining after birth. The process of getting ready blood cells developers called it 'blood pharming', and in fact it is similar with the processes occurring in the red bone marrow - the main blood-producing organ in men. Hemopoietic cells have the ability to divide repeatedly, giving rise to a huge number of blood cells, which form red blood cells and leukocytes. Emulating this process by blood pharming method, it is possible to get about 9 liters of blood from one umbilical cord (this is enough to save the lives of 3 people).
It is important to mention that whole blood refers to the first group with negative Rh-factor that makes it possible to easily transfuse to people with any blood group (people with a negative Rh factor can not be transfused to Rh-positive blood, but on the contrary it is possible, the first group of blood may also be transfused with any other group of blood).
Currently, the production of artificial blood costs about 10,000 dollars per liter, but the technique can be improved by lowering the cost in 5 or more times.
For military uses artificial blood will be available in 2015, but after it becomes more affordable, it is possible its civil application. More information about the invention of U.S. scientists reported on the website of the Defense Sciences Office.
Jul 26, 2010
Vitamin B3 protects against harmful fungi
Canadian scientists have found that vitamin B3 is able to cope with pathogenic fungi.
Candidiasis -is an inflammatory fungal disease affecting the skin and mucous membranes, urogenital and other human systems. Yeast fungi of the genus Candid cause the disease. Of these, the most widely used and studied species are Candida albicans. It is the cause of almost 90% of the surface and 50-70% of cases of deep candidiasis.
Pathogenic Candid largely depend on the state of the organism in which they live. The greatest danger they pose to people with weakened immune systems - people with AIDS or cancer who underwent chemotherapy or after surgery for organ transplantation. Today, there are many anti fungal drugs. But because of the existence of resistant strains of fungi, treatment is often ineffective.
Scientists from the University of Montreal have found out-that an important role in the growth and survival of the yeast belongs to a molecule called Hst3. If these molecules block the genetically or by nicotinamide (vitamin B3 forms), the toxicity of C. albicans in the body is greatly reduced. Moreover, susceptible to the action nikatinamida were those strains of C. Albicans which were resistant to existing anti-fungal drugs.
Describing their research in the online journal "Nature Medicine" of July, 4 scientists noted that in experiments they observed how nicotinamide inhibits the growth of not only S. Albicans, but also other pathogenic species of Candida, and Aspergillus fumigates (black rot), which causes infections in humans and allergic diseases.
- Our results - said study leader Martine Raymond, - this is the first step in the development of new safe and effective drugs to combat fungal infections.
Jul 23, 2010
Vitamin E helps keeping the mind
The use of a diet rich in vitamin E reduces the risk of senile dementia and Alzheimer's disease, say scientists.
The so-called oxidative stress, i.e. damage to the cells of oxygen and free radicals leads to the emergence of many diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. However, the specific biologically active substances - antioxidants - are able to retard oxidation and protect cells from destruction. (Dementia - is a reduced cognitive activity with the loss of one degree or another previously learned knowledge and practical skills, and difficulty or inability to aquire new ones. Arises as a result of brain damage, usually in old age).
Previous studies have shown that drugs that contain antioxidants, do not improve the condition of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. However, whether a meal rich in antioxidants affects the risk of dementia is still unknown.
Professor Elizabeth Devore of the Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, and her team surveyed more than 5.000 persons aged 55 years and older, not suffering from dementia. Scientists were interested in the state of health, as well as the nutrition of research participants.
Particular attention researchers pais at consumption of products containing antioxidants such as vitamin E, vitamin C, beta-carotene and flavonoids.
During those nine and a half years, which study lasted in 465 people has developed dementia, while 365 were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. After analyzing the nutrition of- diseased and healthy participants in the experiment, scientists have come to a conclusion. It was found that the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease is significantly reduced (25%) in those receiving dietary lack of vitamin E (about 9 mg / day). Other antioxidants have no effect on the incidence of this disease.
- Brain cells are very sensitive to oxidative stress - explains the study's author, Professor DeVore.
Meanwhile, damage to brain cells is the cause of dementia and contributes for Alzheimer's disease. Vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant and can protect us from these diseases.
It should be noted that the main sources of vitamin E are margarine, butter, sunflower and soybean oil, mayonnaise.
Jul 22, 2010
Hypodynamy - not the cause but a consequence
British scientists have concluded that the lack of physical activity in children - is a consequence of excess weight, but not vice versa.
Scientists from the Peninsula Medical School in Plymouth, United States, were intrigued by the data obtained from the analysis of several studies on the impact of physical activity on children weight. For more than 3 years, until observed, every child has lost an average only 30 grams. Terry Wilkin and his colleagues decided to find out why the attempts to lose weight were so ineffective.
Everyone knows that overweight children are less nimble. It is considered that the lack of physical activity is the cause of obesity. But is it really so? To find a causal link between physical activity and obesity researchers spent 11 years watching 202 schoolchildren aged 7-10 years: 53 % were boys and 25 % were overweight or obese.
Every child every year during the week wore actigraph. This device allows to record and analyze physical activity. So researchers have identified the volume and intensity of exercise for each participant in the experiment. Also, each year was determined percentage of fat in children.
When the researchers analyzed the results, it was found out that increased body fat predicted a decline in physical activity in the coming years. For instance, 10 per cent increase in body fat at age 7 years was preceded by a decrease in moderate and intense physical activity at 4 minutes in the next three years. But the inverse relationship scientists have not found.
Researchers have suggested that put on weight children can be insecure and embarrassed by the their own appearance, and this prevents them to maintain normal physical activity. A cause of obesity in younger students scientists associate with the peculiarities of nutrition in early childhood.
This work is a part of the study Early Bird, which aims to explore the causes of early diabetes and obesity.
Jul 21, 2010
Food preservative helps bacteria to breed
To keep food in its natural form, manufacturers reduce the amount of added preservatives, but studies show that this can lead to dangerous food intoxication.
The desire of consumers to eat the food in its original form makes food manufacturers to reduce the number of additives that enable products to be stored for a lon